BIO GENETICS LAB 2 QUESTIONS HELP

 NEED HELP WITH BLANK BOX QUESTION(question 1 and 4 in conclusion part. )* It would be nice if you can check my answeres too. NOTES:

Tube Sample Lane

1 1 kb DNA ladder 1

2 Mother’s DNA 2

3 Child’s DNA 3

4 A.F. #1 DNA 4

5 A.F. #2 DNA 5

 

 

 

Record the distance each ladder band moved from the well in mm along with the size of the DNA fragments in that band in bp units, based on the bp given in step 19 , in your Lab Notes.

 

Lane 1:

 

1,000 bp 34 mm

900 bp 36 mm

800 bp 38 mm

700 bp 40 mm

600 bp 43 mm

500 bp 47 mm

400 bp 51 mm

300 bp 56 mm

250 bp 60 mm

200 bp 64 mm

150 bp 69 mm

100 bp 77 mm

50 bp 90 mm

 

 

Lane 2:

 

37 mm 850bp

59 mm 265bp

 

 

Lane 3:

 

37 mm 850bp

44 mm 575bp

 

Lane 4:

 

41 mm 670bp

43 mm 600bp

 

Lane 5:

 

44 mm 575bp

 

55 mm 320bp

 Experiment: Agarose Gel Electrophoresis of DNA FragmentsLab ResultsList the distances traveled in mm for the bands in the DNA ladder in the table below.
Remember, smaller fragments travel farther than longer ones, so the top-most band will be the 1,000 bp sized DNA fragments whereas the bottom-most band will be the 50 bp sized DNA fragments.

 DNA LadderBandDistance (mm)50 bp 90 mm100 bp 77 mm150 bp 69 mm200 bp 64 mm250 bp 60 mm300 bp 56 mm400 bp 51 mm500 bp 47 mm600 bp43 mm 700 bp40 mm 800 bp38 mm 900 bp36 mm 1,000 bp34 mm 

 Whose sample had the approximately 570 bp and 320 bp sized DNA fragments? A.F. #2What were the sizes of the DNA fragments for alleged father #1? 

41 mm 670bp

43 mm 600bp Data AnalysisWhich size DNA fragment did the child inherit from her mother? 37 mm 850bpWhich alleged father, if any, can be definitively ruled out as the child’s biological father? A.F. #2ConclusionsHow are new molecules of DNA synthesized in living cells? What is the function of DNA? 

DNA has genetic information that controls our cells. So, DNA is like a blueprint that shows how to construct components of cells like proteins and ribonucleic acid (RNA). This information is carried down to newer generations through inheritance.If each individual has such a small amount of DNA in their cells, how do the bands on the gel contain enough DNA to be visible?  In order to make DNA visible. The Gel has to be soaked in a dye (ethidium bromide) to bind with the DNA and rinsed off after. Ethidium bromide helps to make DNA visible by glowing brightly in UV rays.Humans only have a few eye colors and only four ABO-based blood types. How can DNA tests definitively identify individuals when many people have brown eyes or type A blood? Suppose a suspicious hair was found in a victim’s home. A gel is set up with the DNA fragments of two suspected criminals in lanes 4 and 5, the DNA fragments of the suspicious hair in lane 3, and the victim’s DNA fragments, as a negative control, are in lane 2. A DNA ladder is in lane 1. The resulting gel is below. Which suspect, if any, committed the crime? Explain your answer.

 Lane 4,5 (two suspected criniminals)

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UMUC Biology 102/103 Lab 5: Meiosis

This contains 100% correct material for UMUC Biology 103 LAB05. However, this is an Answer Key, which means, you should put it in your own words. Here is a sample for the Pre lab questions answered:

Pre-Lab Questions

 

 

 

1. What major events occur during interphase?

 

The cell functions at its job, and prepares for mitosis by collecting resources and duplicating organelles (G1) and genetic content (S), then creating proteins needed for nuclear division (G2).

 

 

 

2. A person, residing in a location where they are exposed to the sun often, develops a mutation in some of their skin cells resulting in cancer. Consider whether their offspring will be born with the same mutation. Use scientific evidence to support your answer.

 

 

 

It would be highly unlikely that the person’s offspring will be born with same skin cancer mutation because the mutation occurred in the person’s skin cells. Skin cells are somatic cells (body cells) and are not involved in meiosis or reproduction. For the mutation to be passed on to the offspring, a sex cell (sperm or egg) would have to carry the mutation.

 

The other questions that will be answered:

 

Experiment 1: Following Chromosomal DNA Movement through Meiosis

 

Data Tables and Post-Lab Assessment

 

Trial 1 – Meiotic Division Beads Diagram:

 

Prophase I

 

Metaphase I

 

Anaphase I

 

Telophase I

 

Prophase II

 

Metaphase II

 

Anaphase II

 

Telophase I

 

Cytokinesis

 

Trial 2 – Meiotic Division Beads Diagram:

 

Prophase I

 

Metaphase I

 

Anaphase I

 

Telophase I

 

Prophase II

 

Metaphase II

 

Anaphase II

 

Telophase I

 

Cytokinesis

 

 

 

Post-Lab Questions

 

1.    What is the ploidy of the DNA at the end of meiosis I? What about at the end of meiosis II

2.    How are meiosis I and meiosis II different?

3.    Why do you use non-sister chromatids to demonstrate crossing over?

 

4.    What combinations of alleles could result from a crossover between BD and bd chromosomes?

 

 5.    How many chromosomes were present when meiosis I started?

 

 6.    How many nuclei are present at the end of meiosis II? How many chromosomes are in each?

 

 7.    Identify two ways that meiosis contributes to genetic recombination.

 

8.    Why is it necessary to reduce the number of chromosomes in gametes, but not in other cells?

 

 9.    Blue whales have 44 chromosomes in every cell. Determine how many chromosomes you would expect to find in the following:

 

 

 

                                  i.    Sperm Cell:

 

 

                                 ii.    Egg Cell:

 

 

 

                                iii.    Daughter Cell from Mitosis:

 

 

 

                               iv.    Daughter Cell from Meiosis II:

 

 

 

10.  Research and find a disease that is caused by chromosomal mutations. When does the mutation occur? What chromosomes are affected? What are the consequences?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11.  Diagram what would happen if sexual reproduction took place for four generations using diploid (2n) cells.

 

 

Experiment 2: The Importance of Cell Cycle Control

 

Data Tables and Post-Lab Assessment

 

1.   

 

 

 

 

 

2.   

 

 

 

 

 

3.   

 

 

 

 

 

4.   

 

 

 

 

 

5.   

 

 

 

 

 

Post-Lab Questions

 

1.    Record your hypothesis from Step 1 in the Procedure section here.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.    What do your results indicate about cell cycle control?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.    Suppose a person developed a mutation in a somatic cell which diminishes the performance of the body’s natural cell cycle control proteins. This mutation resulted in cancer, but was effectively treated with a cocktail of cancer-fighting techniques. Is it possible for this person’s future children to inherit this cancer-causing mutation? Be specific when you explain why or why not.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.    Why do cells which lack cell cycle control exhibit karyotypes which look physically different than cells with normal cell cycle.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.    What are HeLa cells? Why are HeLa cells appropriate for this experiment?

 

 

 

 

 

 

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UMUC Biology 102 / 103 Lab 6: Taxonomy ANSWER KEY

This contains 100% correct material for UMUC Biology 103 LAB06. However, this is an Answer Key, which means, you should put it in your own words. Here is a sample for the Pre lab questions answered:

Pre-Lab Questions

 

1. Use the following classifications to determine which organism is least related out of the three. Explain your rationale. (1 pts)

 

 

The Eastern Newt is the least related organism out of the three. While all three are classified into the same domain, kingdom, phylum and class the Eastern Newt is in a different order than the American Green Tree Frog and the European Fire-Bellied Toad.

 

2. How has DNA sequencing affected the science of classifying organisms? (1 pts)

DNA sequencing has allowed for the comparison of genes at the molecular level as opposed to physical traits at the organism level. Physical traits can be misleading when classifying how related two organisms are. DNA sequencing can also trace relatedness through generations and more accurately assess how closely related two organisms are.

 

3. You are on vacation and see an organism that you do not recognize. Discuss what possible steps you can take to classify it. (1 pts)

The organism’s physical features can be used to compare it to known organisms. Some physiological features can even possibly be used to help classify it.

 

The rest of the questions in the lab are answered as well:

Experiment 1: Dichotomous Key Practice

Data Tables and Post-Lab Assessment

Table 3: Dichotomous Key Results

Organism

Binomial Name

i  

Selasphorus platycercus

ii  

Mus musculus

iii  

Vaccinium oxycoccos

iv  

Ramphastos vitellinus

v

Quercus abla

vi  

Evathlus smithi

vii  

Helix aspersa

viii  

Taeniopygia guttata

ix  

Lonicera japonica

xi  

Oryctes nasicornis

xii  

Taeniopyga guttata

xiii  

Musa acuminata

 

Seems like x was omitted, which would have been Carduelis tristis.

 

Post-Lab Questions

1.    What do you notice about the options of each step as they go from number one up?

 

 

2.    How does your answer from Question 1 relate to the Linnaean classification system?

 

Experiment 2: Classification of Organisms

Data Tables and Post-Lab Assessment

Table 2: Key Characteristics of Some Organisms

Organism

Kingdom

Defined Nucleus

Mobile

Cell Wall

Photosynthesis

Unicellular

E. Coli

 

 

 

Yes

 

Yes

Protozoa

 

Yes

Yes

No

 

Yes

Mushroom

 

Yes

 

Yes

 

 

Sunflower

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

Bear

 

Yes

Yes

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

Post-Lab Questions

1.    Did this series of questions correctly organize each organism? Why or why not?

 

 

2.    What additional questions would you ask to further categorize the items within the kingdoms (Hint: think about other organisms in the kingdom and what makes them different than the examples used here)?

 

 

 

3.    What questions would you have asked instead of the ones that you answered about when classifying the organisms?

 

 

 

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Lab osmosis and diffusion

Please see the attached file.

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UMUC Biology 102/103 Lab 2: The Chemistry of Life ANSWER KEY

This is the correct material for UMUC Biology 102/103 Lab 2: The Chemistry of Life. However, this is an Answer Key, which means, you should put it in your own words. Here are the questions that will be answered. Attached is the lab that is fully completed when purchased. Enjoy!

Pre-Lab Questions

1.    Nitrogen fixation is a natural process by which inert or unreactive forms of nitrogen are transformed into usable nitrogen. Why is this process important to life?

 

2.    Given what you have learned about the hydrogen bonding shared between nucleic acids in DNA, which pair is more stable under increasing heat: adenine and thymine, or cytosine and guanine? Explain why.

 

 

3.    Which of the following is not an organic molecule; Methane (CH4), Fructose(C6H12O6), Rosane (C20H36), or Ammonia (NH3)? How do you know?

 

 

 

 

 

Experiment 1: Testing for Proteins

Data Tables and Post-Lab Assessment

Table 1: A Priori Predictions

Sample

Initial Color

Final Color

Is Protein Present?

1. Albumin Solution

 

 

 

2. Gelatin Solution

 

 

 

3. Glucose

 

 

 

4. Water

 

 

 

5. Unknown

 

 

 

 

Sample

Initial Color

Final Color

Is Protein Present?

1. Albumin Solution

 

 

 

2. Gelatin Solution

 

 

 

3. Glucose

 

 

 

4. Water

 

 

 

5. Unknown

 

 

 

Table 2: Testing for Proteins Results

 

 

 

Post-Lab Questions

1.    Write a statement to explain the molecular composition of the unknown solution based on the results obtained during testing with each reagent.

 

2.    How did your a priori predictions from Table 1 compare to your actual results in Table 2? If there were any inconsistencies, explain why this occurred.

 

3.    Identify the positive and negative controls used in this experiment. Explain how each of these controls are used, and why they are necessary to validate the experimental results.

 

 

4.    Identify two regions which proteins are vital components in the human body. Why are they important to these regions?

 

 

5.    Diet and nutrition are closely linked to the study of biomolecules. Describe one method by which you could monitor your food intake to ensure the cells in your body have the materials necessary to function.

Experiment 2: Testing for Reducing Sugars

Data Tables and Post-Lab Assessment

Table 3: Testing for Reducing Sugars Results

 

Sample

Initial Color

Final Color

Reducing Sugar Present

1 – Potato

 

 

 

2 – Onion

 

 

 

3 – Glucose Solution

 

 

 

4 – Water

 

 

 

5 – Unknown

 

 

 

 

 

Post-Lab Questions

1.    What can you conclude about the molecular make-up of potatoes and onions based on the test you performed? Why might these foods contain these substance(s)?

 

2.    What results would you expect if you tested ribose, a monosaccharide, with Benedict’s solution? Biuret solution?

 

 

 

Experiment 3: What Household Substances are Acidic or Basic?

Data Tables and Post-Lab Assessment

Table 4: pH Values of Common Household Substances

 

Substance

pH Prediction

pH Test Strip Color

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Post-Lab Questions

1.    What is the purpose of determining the pH of the acetic acid and the sodium bicarbonate solution before testing the other household substances?

 

2.    Compare and contrast acids and bases in terms of their H+ ion and OH- ion concentrations.

 

3.    Name two acids and two bases you often use.

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Microbiology Lab Report- Gram Staining, Simple Staining, Negative Staining

  

1. Do a search online 1-2 antibiotics that affect Gram-positive bacteria and list them. On what part of the cell do the antibiotics usually work? List one or two antibiotics that affect Gram-negative bacteria? On what part of the cell do the antibiotics usually work? (Be sure to cite your sources in your answer.) (5 points)

2. Why do you think it is important to identify a bacterial disease in a patient before prescribing any antibiotic treatments? (Be specific.) (5 points)

3.   What are some of the limitations of simple staining? (5 points)

4.   Give an example of a situation in a lab or medical setting in which simple staining would be utilized. (5 points)

5.   So far in this lab, you have used one type of simple stain(Crystal violet) and one type of negative stain (Nigrosin), yet there are many other simple and negative dyes available. Pick one simple dye and one negative dye, and discuss how those dyes differ from the ones you used in this lab. Give a scenario in which their use would be appropriate. (5 points)

6. Using either a textbook or a reputable online resource, research some of the typical characteristics of bacteria, and discuss why it might be important for a researcher or a hospital technician to be able to differentiate between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. (5 points)

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lab report

Experiment 2: Concentration Gradients and Membrane Permeability

In this experiment, you will dialyze a solution of glucose and starch to observe: The directional movement of glucose and starch. The effect of a selectively permeable membrane on the diffusion of these molecules.

An indicator is a substance that changes color when in the presence of a specific substance. In this experiment, IKI will be used as an indicator to test for the presence of starch.

 

Materials

(5) 100 mL Beakers
10 mL 1% Glucose Solution, C6H12O6
4 Glucose Test Strips
(1) 100 mL Graduated Cylinder
4 mL 1% Iodine-Potassium Iodide, IKI
5 mL Liquid Starch, C6H10O5
3 Pipettes
4 Rubber Bands (Small; contain latex, handle with gloves on if allergic)  

 

Permanent Marker
* Stopwatch
* Water
* Scissors

*15.0 cm Dialysis Tubing

*You Must Provide
*Be sure to measure and cut only the length you need for this experiment. Reserve the remainder for later experiments.

 

 

 

  

  Attention!

Do not allow the open end of the dialysis tubing to fall into the beaker. If it does, remove the tube and rinse thoroughly with water before refilling it with the starch/glucose solution and replacing it in the beaker.

 Note:

If you make a mistake, the dialysis tubing can be rinsed and used again.

Dialysis tubing must be soaked in water before you will be able to open it up to create the dialysis “bag.” Follow these directions for this experiment:

1.      Soak the tubing in a beaker of water for ten minutes.

2.     Place the dialysis tubing between your thumb and forefinger, and rub the two digits together in a shearing manner. This motion should open up the “tube” so that you can fill it with the different solutions.

 

Procedure

1.     Measure and pour 50 mL of water into a 100 mL beaker using the 100 mL graduated cylinder. Cut a piece of dialysis tubing 15.0 cm long. Submerge the dialysis tubing in the water for at least ten minutes.

 

2.     Measure and pour 82 mL of water into a second 100 mL beaker using the 100 mL graduated cylinder. This is the beaker you will put the filled dialysis bag into in Step 9.

3.     Make the glucose/sucrose mixture. Use a graduated pipette to add 5 mL of glucose solution to a third 100 mL beaker and label it “dialysis bag solution.” Use a different graduated pipette to add 5 mL of starch solution to the same beaker. Mix by pipetting the solution up and down six times.

4.     Using the same pipette that you used to mix the dialysis bag solution, remove 2 mL of the dialysis bag solution and place it in a clean beaker. This sample will serve as your positive control for glucose and starch. 

a.     Dip one of the glucose test strips into the 2 mL of glucose/starch solution in the third beaker. After one minute has passed, record the final color of the glucose test strip in Table 3. This is your positive control for glucose.

b.     Use a pipette to transfer approximately 0.5 mL of IKI into the 2 mL of glucose/starch solution into the third beaker. After one minute has passed, record the final color of the glucose/starch solution in the beaker in Table 3. This is your positive control for starch.

5.     Using a clean pipette, remove 2 mL of water from the 82 mL of water you placed in a beaker in Step 2, and place it in a clean beaker. This sample will serve as your negative controls for glucose and starch.

a.     Dip one of the glucose test strips into the 2 mL of water in the beaker. After one minute has passed, record the final color of the glucose test strip in Table 3. This is your negative control for glucose.

b.     Use a pipette to transfer approximately 0.5 mL of IKI into the 2 mL in the beaker. After one minute has passed, record the final color of the water in the beaker      in Table 3. This is your negative control for starch.

Note : The color results of these controls determine the indicator reagent key. You must use these results to interpret the rest of your results.

6.     After at least ten minutes have passed, remove the dialysis tube and close one end by folding over 3.0 cm of one end (bottom). Fold it again and secure with a rubber band (use two rubber bands if necessary).

7.     Test to make sure the closed end of the dialysis tube will not allow solution to leak out. Dry off the outside of the dialysis tube bag with a cloth or paper towel. Then, add a small amount of water to the bag and examine the rubber band seal for leakage. Be sure to remove the water from the inside of the bag before continuing. Using the same pipette that was used to mix the solution in Step 3, transfer 8 mL of the dialysis bag solution to the prepared dialysis bag.

Figure 4: Step 9 reference.

9.     Place the filled dialysis bag in the 100 mL beaker filled with 80 mL of water, leaving the open end draped over the edge of the beaker as shown in Figure 4.

10. Allow the solution to sit for 60 minutes. Clean and dry all materials except the beaker holding the dialysis bag.

11. After the solution has diffused for 60 minutes, remove the dialysis bag from the beaker and empty the contents of the bag into a clean, dry beaker. Label the beaker “final dialysis bag solution.” 

12. Test the final dialysis bag solution for the presence of glucose by dipping one glucose test strip into the dialysis bag. Wait one minute before reading the results of the test strip. Record your results for the presence of glucose in Table 4.

13. Test for the presence of starch by adding 2 mL IKI. After one minute has passed, record the final color in Table 4.

14. Use a pipette to transfer 8 mL of the water in the beaker to a clean beaker. Test the beaker water for the presence of glucose by dipping one glucose test strip into the beaker. Wait one minute before reading the results of the test strip, and record the results in Table 4.

15. Test for the presence of starch by adding 2 mL of IKI to the beaker water. Record the final color of the beaker solution in Table 4.

 

 

Table 3: Indicator Reagent Data

Indicator

Starch Positive
Control (Color)

Starch Negative
Control (Color)

Glucose Positive
Control (Color)

Glucose Negative
Control (Color)

Glucose Test Strip

n/a

n/a

 

 

IKI Solution

 

 

n/a

n/a

 

Table 4: Diffusion of Starch and Glucose Over Time

Indicator

Dialysis Bag After 60 Minutes

Beaker Water After 60 Minutes

IKI Solution

 

 

Glucose Test Strip

 

 

 

Post-Lab Questions

1.     Why is it necessary to have positive and negative controls in this experiment?

 

 

 

 

 

2.     Draw a diagram of the experimental set-up. Use arrows to depict the movement of each substance in the dialysis bag and the beaker.

 

 

 

 

3.     Which substance(s) crossed the dialysis membrane? Support your response with data-based evidence.

 

 

 

 

4.     Which molecules remained inside of the dialysis bag?

 

 

5.     Did all of the molecules diffuse out of the bag into the beaker? Why or why not?

 

 

 

 

 

Experiment 1: Diffusion through a Liquid

In this experiment, you will observe the effect that different molecular weights have on the ability of dye to travel through a viscous medium. Materials

1 60 mL Corn Syrup Bottle, C12H22O11
Red and Blue Dye Solutions (Blue molecular weight = 793 g/mole; red molecular weight = 496 g/mole)
(1) 9 cm Petri Dish (top and bottom halves)  

Ruler
* Stopwatch
* Clear Tape

*You Must Provide   

 

Procedure

1.     Use clear tape to secure one-half of the petri dish (either the bottom or the top half) over a ruler. Make sure that you can read the measurement markings on the ruler through the petri dish. The dish should be positioned with the open end of the dish facing upwards.

Carefully fill the half of the petri dish with corn syrup until the entire surface is covered. Develop a hypothesis regarding which color dye you believe will diffuse faster across the corn syrup and why. Record this in the post-lab questions. Place a single drop of blue dye in the middle of the corn syrup. Note the position where the dye fell by reading the location of its outside edge on the ruler. Record the location of the outside edge of the dye (the distance it has traveled) every ten seconds for a total of two minutes. Record your data in Table 1 and use your results to perform the calculations in Table 2. Repeat the procedure using the red dye, the unused half of the petri dish, and fresh corn syrup.

 

Table 1: Rate of Diffusion in Corn Syrup

Time (sec)

Blue Dye

Red Dye

Time (sec)

Blue Dye

Red Dye

10

 

 

70

 

 

20

 

 

80

 

 

30

 

 

90

 

 

40

 

 

100

 

 

50

 

 

110

 

 

60

 

 

120

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 2: Speed of Diffusion of Different Molecular Weight Dyes

Structure

Molecular Weight

Total Distance
Traveled (mm)

Speed of Diffusion
(mm/hr)*

Blue Dye

 

 

 

Red Dye

 

 

 

*Multiply the total distance diffused by 30 to get the hourly diffusion rate

 

Post-Lab Questions Record your hypothesis from Step 3 here. Be sure to validate your predictions with scientific reasoning.

 

 

  Which dye diffused the fastest?

 

 

  Does the rate of diffusion correspond with the molecular weight of the dye?

 

 

 

 

  Does the rate of diffusion change over time? Why or why not?

 

 

 

  Examine the graph below. Does it match the data you recorded in Table 2? Explain why, or why not. Submit your own plot if necessary.

 

https://nuonline.neu.edu/bbcswebdav/pid-9451339-dt-content-rid-14232100_1/courses/BIO1101.90155.201714/BIO1101.90155.201714_ImportedContent_20160930044714/CourseRoot/html/lab006s001.html

 

 

https://nuonline.neu.edu/bbcswebdav/pid-9451340-dt-content-rid-14232401_1/courses/BIO1101.90155.201714/BIO1101.90155.201714_ImportedContent_20160930044714/CourseRoot/html/lab006s002.html

 

https://nuonline.neu.edu/bbcswebdav/pid-9451341-dt-content-rid-14232402_1/courses/BIO1101.90155.201714/BIO1101.90155.201714_ImportedContent_20160930044714/CourseRoot/html/lab006s003.html

 

 

   

 

 

 

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biology

only for Tutor Lynn G

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Biology Lab Work 4 assistance

  

UMUC Biology 102/103

Lab 4: Enzymes

 INSTRUCTIONS:

 

 

 ·         On your own and without assistance, complete this Lab 4 Answer Sheet electronically and submit it via the Assignments Folder by the date listed in the Course Schedule (under Syllabus ).

 ·         To conduct your laboratory exercises, use the Laboratory Manual located under Course Content. Read the introduction and the directions for each exercise/experiment carefully before completing the exercises/experiments and answering the questions.

 ·         Save your Lab 4 Answer Sheet in the following format:  LastName_Lab4 (e.g., Smith_Lab4) .

 ·         You should submit your document as a Word (.doc or .docx) or Rich Text Format (.rtf) file for best compatibility.

 

 

 

 

 

Pre-Lab Questions

 

 

 How could you test to see if an enzyme was completely saturated during an experiment?

 

 

 

 

 List three conditions that would alter the activity of an enzyme. Be specific with your explanation.

 

 

 

 

 Take a look around your house and identify household products that work by means of an enzyme. Name the products, and indicate how you know they work with an enzyme.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Experiment 1: Enzymes in Food

 

 

 

 

 

Data Tables and Post-Lab Assessment

 

Table 1: Substance vs. Starch Presence

 

Table 1: Substance vs. Starch Presence

Substance

Resulting Color

Presence of Starch?

Positive Control: Ginger Root

 

 

Negative Control: Student Must Select

 

 

Food Product:

 

 

Food Product:

 

 

Saliva:

 

 

 

 

 

Post-Lab Questions

 

What were your controls for this experiment? What did they demonstrate? Why was saliva included in this experiment?

 

 

 

What is the function of amylase? What does amylase do to starch?

 

 

 Which of the foods that you tested contained amylase? Which did not? What experimental evidence supports your claim?

 

 

  Saliva does not contain amylase until babies are two months old. How could this affect an infant’s digestive requirements?

 

 

 

There is another digestive enzyme (other than salivary amylase) that is secreted by the salivary glands. Research to determine what this enzyme is called. What substrate does it act on? Where in the body does it become activated, and why?

 

 

 

Digestive enzymes in the gut include proteases, which digest proteins. Why don’t these enzymes digest the stomach and small intestine, which are partially composed of protein?

 

 

 

 

 

Experiment 2: Effect of Temperature on Enzyme Activity

 

 

 

Data Tables and Post-Lab Assessment

 

Table 2: Balloon Circumference vs. Temperature

 

 

 

Table 2: Balloon Circumference vs. Temperature

Tube

Temperature (°C)

Uninflated Balloon Circumference (cm)

Final Balloon Circumference (cm)

Difference in Balloon Circumference (cm)

1 – (Cold)

 

 

 

 

2 – (RT)

 

 

 

3 – (Hot)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Post-Lab Questions

 What reaction is being catalyzed in this experiment?

  What is the enzyme in this experiment? What is the substrate?

  What is the independent variable in this experiment? What is the dependent variable?

  How does the temperature affect enzyme function? Use evidence from your data to support your answer.

  Draw a graph of balloon diameter vs. temperature. What is the correlation?

  Is there a negative control in this experiment? If yes, identify the control. If no, suggest how you could revise the experiment to include a negative control.

  In general, how would an increase in substrate alter enzyme activity? Draw a graph to illustrate this relationship.

 

Design an experiment to determine the optimal temperature for enzyme function, complete with controls. Where would you find the enzymes for this experiment? What substrate would you use?

 

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Scin work wk7

Complete all the activities in this lab instruction packet: SCIN 130 Lab 7: CSI Wildlife, Case 1. Work through the instruction packet step by step. Record your results directly in the worksheet as you progress through the questions.

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