Week 7

Part1- Due Thursday 

Respond to the following in a minimum of 175 words:

Read the following scenario and explain what power issues may arise. What factors influence statistical power?

A researcher is exploring differences between men and women on ‘number of different recreational drugs used.’ The researcher collects data on a sample of 50 men and 50 women between the ages of 18-25. Each participant is asked ‘how many different recreational drugs have you tried in your life?’ The IV is gender (male/female) and the DV is ‘number of reported drugs.’

Part2-PLEASE SEE ATTACHMENT

PART3-PLEASE SEE ATTACHMENT…THIS IS A GROUP ASSIGNMENT I ONLY HAVE TO COMPLETE A PART OF THE TABLE. I WILL POST MY PART ON TUESDAY

REFERENCE CHAPTER 13

LEARNING OBJECTIVES Explain how researchers use inferential statistics to evaluate sample data. Distinguish between the null hypothesis and the research hypothesis. Discuss probability in statistical inference, including the meaning of statistical significance. Describe the t test and explain the difference between one-tailed and two-tailed tests. Describe the F test, including systematic variance and error variance. Describe what a confidence interval tells you about your data. Distinguish between Type I and Type II errors. Discuss the factors that influence the probability of a Type II error. Discuss the reasons a researcher may obtain nonsignificant results. Define power of a statistical test. Describe the criteria for selecting an appropriate statistical test.

Page 267IN THE PREVIOUS CHAPTER, WE EXAMINED WAYS OF DESCRIBING THE RESULTS OF A STUDY USING DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS AND A VARIETY OF GRAPHING TECHNIQUES. In addition to descriptive statistics, researchers use inferential statistics to draw more general conclusions about their data. In short, inferential statistics allow researchers to (a) assess just how confident they are that their results reflect what is true in the larger population and (b) assess the likelihood that their findings would still occur if their study was repeated over and over. In this chapter, we examine methods for doing so. SAMPLES AND POPULATIONS

Inferential statistics are necessary because the results of a given study are based only on data obtained from a single sample of research participants. Researchers rarely, if ever, study entire populations; their findings are based on sample data. In addition to describing the sample data, we want to make statements about populations. Would the results hold up if the experiment were conducted repeatedly, each time with a new sample?

In the hypothetical experiment described in Chapter 12 (see Table 12.1), mean aggression scores were obtained in model and no-model conditions. These means are different: Children who observe an aggressive model subsequently behave more aggressively than children who do not see the model. Inferential statistics are used to determine whether the results match what would happen if we were to conduct the experiment again and again with multiple samples. In essence, we are asking whether we can infer that the difference in the sample means shown in Table 12.1 reflects a true difference in the population means.

Recall our discussion of this issue in Chapter 7 on the topic of survey data. A sample of people in your state might tell you that 57% prefer the Democratic candidate for an office and that 43% favor the Republican candidate. The report then says that these results are accurate to within 3 percentage points, with a 95% confidence level. This means that the researchers are very (95%) confident that, if they were able to study the entire population rather than a sample, the actual percentage who preferred the Democratic candidate would be between 60% and 54% and the percentage preferring the Republican would be between 46% and 40%. In this case, the researcher could predict with a great deal of certainty that the Democratic candidate will win because there is no overlap in the projected population values. Note, however, that even when we are very (in this case, 95%) sure, we still have a 5% chance of being wrong.

Inferential statistics allow us to arrive at such conclusions on the basis of sample data. In our study with the model and no-model conditions, are we confident that the means are sufficiently different to infer that the difference would be obtained in an entire population?

Page 268 INFERENTIAL STATISTICS

Much of the previous discussion of experimental design centered on the importance of ensuring that the groups are equivalent in every way except the independent variable manipulation. Equivalence of groups is achieved by experimentally controlling all other variables or by randomization. The assumption is that if the groups are equivalent, any differences in the dependent variable must be due to the effect of the independent variable.

This assumption is usually valid. However, it is also true that the difference between any two groups will almost never be zero. In other words, there will be some difference in the sample means, even when all of the principles of experimental design are rigorously followed. This happens because we are dealing with samples, rather than populations. Random or chance error will be responsible for some difference in the means, even if the independent variable had no effect on the dependent variable.

Therefore, the difference in the sample means does show any true difference in the population means (i.e., the effect of the independent variable) plus any random error. Inferential statistics allow researchers to make inferences about the true difference in the population on the basis of the sample data. Specifically, inferential statistics give the probability that the difference between means reflects random error rather than a real difference. NULL AND RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

Statistical inference begins with a statement of the null hypothesis and a research (or alternative) hypothesis. The null hypothesis is simply that the population means are equal—the observed difference is due to random error. The research hypothesis is that the population means are, in fact, not equal. The null hypothesis states that the independent variable had no effect; the research hypothesis states that the independent variable did have an effect. In the aggression modeling experiment, the null and research hypotheses are:

H0 (null hypothesis): The population mean of the no-model group is equal to the population mean of the model group.

H1 (research hypothesis): The population mean of the no-model group is not equal to the population mean of the model group.

The logic of the null hypothesis is this: If we can determine that the null hypothesis is incorrect, then we accept the research hypothesis as correct. Acceptance of the research hypothesis means that the independent variable had an effect on the dependent variable.

The null hypothesis is used because it is a very precise statement—the population means are exactly equal. This permits us to know precisely the Page 269probability of obtaining our results if the null hypothesis is correct. Such precision is not possible with the research hypothesis, so we infer that the research hypothesis is correct only by rejecting the null hypothesis. We reject the null hypothesis when we find a very low probability that the obtained results could be due to random error. This is what is meant by statistical significance: A significant result is one that has a very low probability of occurring if the population means are equal. More simply, significance indicates that there is a low probability that the difference between the obtained sample means was due to random error. Significance, then, is a matter of probability. PROBABILITY AND SAMPLING DISTRIBUTIONS

Probability is the likelihood of the occurrence of some event or outcome. We all use probabilities frequently in everyday life. For example, if you say that there is a high probability that you will get an A in this course, you mean that this outcome is likely to occur. Your probability statement is based on specific information, such as your grades on examinations. The weather forecaster says there is a 10% chance of rain today; this means that the likelihood of rain is very low. A gambler gauges the probability that a particular horse will win a race on the basis of the past records of that horse.

Probability in statistical inference is used in much the same way. We want to specify the probability that an event (in this case, a difference between means in the sample) will occur if there is no difference in the population. The question is: What is the probability of obtaining this result if only random error is operating? If this probability is very low, we reject the possibility that only random or chance error is responsible for the obtained difference in means. Probability: The Case of ESP

The use of probability in statistical inference can be understood intuitively from a simple example. Suppose that a friend claims to have ESP (extrasensory perception) ability. You decide to test your friend with a set of five cards commonly used in ESP research; a different symbol is presented on each card. In the ESP test, you look at each card and think about the symbol, and your friend tells you which symbol you are thinking about. In your actual experiment, you have 10 trials; each of the five cards is presented two times in a random order. Your task is to know whether your friend’s answers reflect random error (guessing) or whether they indicate that something more than random error is occurring. The null hypothesis in your study is that only random error is operating. In this case, the research hypothesis is that the number of correct answers shows more than random or chance guessing. (Note, however, that accepting the research hypothesis could mean that your friend has ESP ability, but it could also mean that the cards were marked, that you had somehow cued your friend when thinking about the symbols, and so on.)

Page 270You can easily determine the number of correct answers to expect if the null hypothesis is correct. Just by guessing, 1 out of 5 answers (20%) should be correct. On 10 trials, 2 correct answers are expected under the null hypothesis. If, in the actual experiment, more (or less) than 2 correct answers are obtained, would you conclude that the obtained data reflect random error or something more than merely random guessing?

Suppose that your friend gets 3 correct. Then you would probably conclude that only guessing is involved, because you would recognize that there is a high probability that there would be 3 correct answers even though only 2 correct are expected under the null hypothesis. You expect that exactly 2 answers in 10 trials would be correct in the long run, if you conducted this experiment with this subject over and over again. However, small deviations away from the expected 2 are highly likely in a sample of 10 trials.

Suppose, though, that your friend gets 7 correct. You might conclude that the results indicate more than random error in this one sample of 10 observations. This conclusion would be based on your intuitive judgment that an outcome of 70% correct when only 20% is expected is very unlikely. At this point, you would decide to reject the null hypothesis and state that the result is significant. A significant result is one that is very unlikely if the null hypothesis is correct.

A key question then becomes: How unlikely does a result have to be before we decide it is significant? A decision rule is determined prior to collecting the data. The probability required for significance is called the alpha level. The most common alpha level probability used is .05. The outcome of the study is considered significant when there is a .05 or less probability of obtaining the results; that is, there are only 5 chances out of 100 that the results were due to random error in one sample from the population. If it is very unlikely that random error is responsible for the obtained results, the null hypothesis is rejected. Sampling Distributions

You may have been able to judge intuitively that obtaining 7 correct on the 10 trials is very unlikely. Fortunately, we do not have to rely on intuition to determine the probabilities of different outcomes. Table 13.1 shows the probability of actually obtaining each of the possible outcomes in the ESP experiment with 10 trials and a null hypothesis expectation of 20% correct. An outcome of 2 correct answers has the highest probability of occurrence. Also, as intuition would suggest, an outcome of 3 correct is highly probable, but an outcome of 7 correct is highly unlikely.

The probabilities shown in Table 13.1 were derived from a probability distribution called the binomial distribution; all statistical significance decisions are based on probability distributions such as this one. Such distributions are called sampling distributions. The sampling distribution is based on the assumption that the null hypothesis is true; in the ESP example, the null hypothesis is that the person is only guessing and should therefore get 20% correct. Such a distribution assumes that if you were to conduct the study with the same number of observations over and over again, the most frequent finding would be 20%. However, because of the random error possible in each sample, there is a certain probability associated with other outcomes. Outcomes that are close to the expected null hypothesis value of 20% are very likely. However, outcomes farther from the expected result are less and less likely if the null hypothesis is correct. When your obtained results are highly unlikely if you are, in fact, sampling from the distribution specified by the null hypothesis, you conclude that the null hypothesis is incorrect. Instead of concluding that your sample results reflect a random deviation from the long-run expectation of 20%, you decide that the null hypothesis is incorrect. That is, you conclude that you have not sampled from the sampling distribution specified by the null hypothesis. Instead, in the case of the ESP example, you decide that your data are from a different sampling distribution in which, if you were to test the person repeatedly, most of the outcomes would be near your obtained result of 7 correct answers.

Page 271

TABLE 13.1 Exact probability of each possible outcome of the ESP experiment with 10 trials

All statistical tests rely on sampling distributions to determine the probability that the results are consistent with the null hypothesis. When the obtained data are very unlikely according to null hypothesis expectations (usually a .05 probability or less), the researcher decides to reject the null hypothesis and therefore to accept the research hypothesis. Sample Size

The ESP example also illustrates the impact of sample size—the total number of observations—on determinations of statistical significance. Suppose you had tested your friend on 100 trials instead of 10 and had observed 30 correct answers. Just as you had expected 2 correct answers in 10 trials, you would now expect 20 of 100 answers to be correct. However, 30 out of 100 has a much Page 272lower likelihood of occurrence than 3 out of 10. This is because, with more observations sampled, you are more likely to obtain an accurate estimate of the true population value. Thus, as the size of your sample increases, you are more confident that your outcome is actually different from the null hypothesis expectation. EXAMPLE: THE t AND F TESTS

Different statistical tests allow us to use probability to decide whether to reject the null hypothesis. In this section, we will examine the t test and the F test. The t test is commonly used to examine whether two groups are significantly different from each other. In the hypothetical experiment on the effect of a model on aggression, a t test is appropriate because we are asking whether the mean of the no-model group differs from the mean of the model group. The F test is a more general statistical test that can be used to ask whether there is a difference among three or more groups or to evaluate the results of factorial designs (discussed in Chapter 10).

To use a statistical test, you must first specify the null hypothesis and the research hypothesis that you are evaluating. The null and research hypotheses for the modeling experiment were described previously. You must also specify the significance level that you will use to decide whether to reject the null hypothesis; this is the alpha level. As noted, researchers generally use a significance level of .05. t Test

The sampling distribution of all possible values of t is shown in Figure 13.1. (This particular distribution is for the sample size we used in the hypothetical experiment on modeling and aggression; the sample size was 20 with 10 participants in each group.) This sampling distribution has a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1. It reflects all the possible outcomes we could expect if we compare the means of two groups and the null hypothesis is correct.

To use this distribution to evaluate our data, we need to calculate a value of t from the obtained data and evaluate the obtained t in terms of the sampling distribution of t that is based on the null hypothesis. If the obtained t has a low probability of occurrence (.05 or less), then the null hypothesis is rejected.

The t value is a ratio of two aspects of the data, the difference between the group means and the variability within groups. The ratio may be described as follows:

The group difference is simply the difference between your obtained means; under the null hypothesis, you expect this difference to be zero. The value of t increases as the difference between your obtained sample means increases. Note that the sampling distribution of t assumes that there is no difference in the population means; thus, the expected value of t under the null hypothesis is zero. The within-group variability is the amount of variability of scores about the mean. The denominator of the t formula is essentially an indicator of the amount of random error in your sample. Recall from Chapter 12 that s, the standard deviation, and s2, the variance, are indicators of how much scores deviate from the group mean.

Page 273

FIGURE 13.1

Sampling distributions of t values with 18 degrees of freedom

A concrete example of a calculation of a t test should help clarify these concepts. The formula for the t test for two groups with equal numbers of participants in each group is:

Page 274The numerator of the formula is simply the difference between the means of the two groups. In the denominator, we first divide the variance ( and ) of each group by the number of subjects in that group (n1 and n2) and add these together. We then find the square root of the result; this converts the number from a squared score (the variance) to a standard deviation. Finally, we calculate our obtained t value by dividing the mean difference by this standard deviation. When the formula is applied to the data in Table 12.1, we find:

Thus, the t value calculated from the data is 4.02. Is this a significant result? A computer program analyzing the results would immediately tell you the probability of obtaining a t value of this size with a total sample size of 20. Without such a program, there are Internet resources to find a table of “critical values” of t (http://www.statisticsmentor.com/category/statstables/) or to calculate the probability for you (http://vassarstats.net/tabs.html). Before going any farther, you should know that the obtained result is significant. Using a significance level of .05, the critical value from the sampling distribution of t is 2.101. Any t value greater than or equal to 2.101 has a .05 or less probability of occurring under the assumptions of the null hypothesis. Because our obtained value is larger than the critical value, we can reject the null hypothesis and conclude that the difference in means obtained in the sample reflects a true difference in the population. Degrees of Freedom

You are probably wondering how the critical value was selected from the table. To use the table, you must first determine the degrees of freedom for the test (the term degrees of freedom is abbreviated as df). When comparing two means, you assume that the degrees of freedom are equal to n1 + n2 − 2, or the total number of participants in the groups minus the number of groups. In our experiment, the degrees of freedom would be 10 + 10 − 2 = 18. The degrees of freedom are the number of scores free to vary once the means are known. For example, if the mean of a group is 6.0 and there are five scores in the group, there are 4 degrees of freedom; once you have any four scores, the fifth score is known because the mean must remain 6.0. One-Tailed Versus Two-Tailed Tests

In the table, you must choose a critical t for the situation in which your research hypothesis either (1) specified a direction of difference between the Page 275groups (e.g., group 1 will be greater than group 2) or (2) did not specify a predicted direction of difference (e.g., group 1 will differ from group 2). Somewhat different critical values of t are used in the two situations: The first situation is called a one-tailed test, and the second situation is called a two-tailed test.

The issue can be visualized by looking at the sampling distribution of t values for 18 degrees of freedom, as shown in Figure 13.1. As you can see, a value of 0.00 is expected most frequently. Values greater than or less than zero are less likely to occur. The first distribution shows the logic of a two-tailed test. We used the value of 2.101 for the critical value of t with a .05 significance level because a direction of difference was not predicted. This critical value is the point beyond which 2.5% of the positive values and 2.5% of the negative values of t lie (hence, a total probability of .05 combined from the two “tails” of the sampling distribution). The second distribution illustrates a one-tailed test. If a directional difference had been predicted, the critical value would have been 1.734. This is the value beyond which 5% of the values lie in only one “tail” of the distribution. Whether to specify a one-tailed or two-tailed test will depend on whether you originally designed your study to test a directional hypothesis. F Test

The analysis of variance, or F test, is an extension of the t test. The analysis of variance is a more general statistical procedure than the t test. When a study has only one independent variable with two groups, F and t are virtually identical—the value of F equals t2 in this situation. However, analysis of variance is also used when there are more than two levels of an independent variable and when a factorial design with two or more independent variables has been used. Thus, the F test is appropriate for the simplest experimental design, as well as for the more complex designs discussed in Chapter 10. The t test was presented first because the formula allows us to demonstrate easily the relationship of the group difference and the within-group variability to the outcome of the statistical test. However, in practice, analysis of variance is the more common procedure. The calculations necessary to conduct an F test are provided in Appendix C.

The F statistic is a ratio of two types of variance: systematic variance and error variance (hence the term analysis of variance). Systematic variance is the deviation of the group means from the grand mean, or the mean score of all individuals in all groups. Systematic variance is small when the difference between group means is small and increases as the group mean differences increase. Error variance is the deviation of the individual scores in each group from their respective group means. Terms that you may see in research instead of systematic and error variance are between-group variance and within-group variance. Systematic variance is the variability of scores between groups, and error variance is the variability of scores within groups. The larger the F ratio is, the more likely it is that the results are significant.

Page 276 Calculating Effect Size

The concept of effect size was discussed in Chapter 12. After determining that there was a statistically significant effect of the independent variable, researchers will want to know the magnitude of the effect. Therefore, we want to calculate an estimate of effect size. For a t test, the calculation is

where df is the degrees of freedom. Thus, using the obtained value of t, 4.02, and 18 degrees of freedom, we find:

This value is a type of correlation coefficient that can range from 0.00 to 1.00; as mentioned in Chapter 12, .69 is considered a large effect size. For additional information on effect size calculation, see Rosenthal (1991). The same distinction between r and r2 that was made in Chapter 12 applies here as well.

Another effect size estimate used when comparing two means is called Cohen’s d. Cohen’s d expresses effect size in terms of standard deviation units. A d value of 1.0 tells you that the means are 1 standard deviation apart; a d of .2 indicates that the means are separated by .2 standard deviation.

You can calculate the value of Cohen’s d using the means (M) and standard deviations (SD) of the two groups:

Note that the formula uses M and SD instead of and s. These abbreviations are used in APA style (see Appendix A).

The value of d is larger than the corresponding value of r, but it is easy to convert d to a value of r. Both statistics provide information on the size of the relationship between the variables studied. You might note that both effect size estimates have a value of 0.00 when there is no relationship. The value of r has a maximum value of 1.00, but d has no maximum value. Confidence Intervals and Statistical Significance

Confidence intervals were described in Chapter 7. After obtaining a sample value, we can calculate a confidence interval. An interval of values defines the most likely range of actual population values. The interval has an associated confidence interval: A 95% confidence interval indicates that we are 95% sure that the population value lies within the range; a 99% interval would provide greater certainty but the range of values would be larger.

Page 277A confidence interval can be obtained for each of the means in the aggression experiment. The 95% confidence intervals for the two conditions are:

A bar graph that includes a visual depiction of the confidence interval can be very useful. The means from the aggression experiment are shown in Figure 13.2. The shaded bars represent the mean aggression scores in the two conditions. The confidence interval for each group is shown with a vertical I-shaped line that is bounded by the upper and lower limits of the 95% confidence interval. It is important to examine confidence intervals to obtain a greater understanding of the meaning of your obtained data. Although the obtained sample means provide the best estimate of the population values, you are able to see the likely range of possible values. The size of the interval is related to both the size of the sample and the confidence level. As the sample size increases, the confidence interval narrows. This is because sample means obtained with larger sample sizes are more likely to reflect the population mean. Second, higher confidence is associated with a larger interval. If you want to be almost certain that the interval contains the true population mean (e.g., a 99% confidence interval), you will need to include more possibilities. Note that the 95% confidence intervals for the two means do not overlap. This should be a clue to you that the difference is statistically significant. Indeed, examining confidence intervals is an alternative way of thinking about statistical significance. The null hypothesis is that the difference in population means is 0.00. However, if you were to subtract all the means in the 95% confidence interval for the no-model condition from all the means in the model condition, none of these differences would include the value of 0.00. We can be very confident that the null hypothesis should be rejected.

FIGURE 13.2

Mean aggression scores from the hypothetical modeling experiment including the 95% confidence intervals

Page 278 Statistical Significance: An Overview

The logic underlying the use of statistical tests rests on statistical theory. There are some general concepts, however, that should help you understand what you are doing when you conduct a statistical test. First, the goal of the test is to allow you to make a decision about whether your obtained results are reliable; you want to be confident that you would obtain similar results if you conducted the study over and over again. Second, the significance level (alpha level) you choose indicates how confident you wish to be when making the decision. A .05 significance level says that you are 95% sure of the reliability of your findings; however, there is a 5% chance that you could be wrong. There are few certainties in life! Third, you are most likely to obtain significant results when you have a large sample size because larger sample sizes provide better estimates of true population values. Finally, you are most likely to obtain significant results when the effect size is large, i.e., when differences between groups are large and variability of scores within groups is small.

In the remainder of the chapter, we will expand on these issues. We will examine the implications of making a decision about whether results are significant, the way to determine a significance level, and the way to interpret nonsignificant results. We will then provide some guidelines for selecting the appropriate statistical test in various research designs. TYPE I AND TYPE II ERRORS

The decision to reject the null hypothesis is based on probabilities rather than on certainties. That is, the decision is made without direct knowledge of the true state of affairs in the population. Thus, the decision might not be correct; errors may result from the use of inferential statistics.

A decision matrix is shown in Figure 13.3. Notice that there are two possible decisions: (1) Reject the null hypothesis or (2) accept the null hypothesis. There are also two possible truths about the population: (1) The null hypothesis is true or (2) the null hypothesis is false. In sum, as the decision matrix shows, there are two kinds of correct decisions and two kinds of errors. Correct Decisions

One correct decision occurs when we reject the null hypothesis and the research hypothesis is true in the population. Here, our decision is that the population means are not equal, and in fact, this is true in the population. This is the decision you hope to make when you begin your study.

Page 279

FIGURE 13.3

Decision matrix for Type I and Type II errors

The other correct decision is to accept the null hypothesis, and the null hypothesis is true in the population: The population means are in fact equal. Type I Errors

A Type I error is made when we reject the null hypothesis but the null hypothesis is actually true. Our decision is that the population means are not equal when they actually are equal. Type I errors occur when, simply by chance, we obtain a large value of t or F. For example, even though a t value of 4.025 is highly improbable if the population means are indeed equal (less than 5 chances out of 100), this can happen. When we do obtain such a large t value by chance, we incorrectly decide that the independent variable had an effect.

The probability of making a Type I error is determined by the choice of significance or alpha level (alpha may be shown as the Greek letter alpha—α). When the significance level for deciding whether to reject the null hypothesis is .05, the probability of a Type I error (alpha) is .05. If the null hypothesis is rejected, there are 5 chances out of 100 that the decision is wrong. The probability of making a Type I error can be changed by either decreasing or increasing the significance level. If we use a lower alpha level of .01, for example, there is less chance of making a Type I error. With a .01 significance level, the null hypothesis is rejected only when the probability of obtaining the results is .01 or less if the null hypothesis is correct. Type II Errors

A Type II error occurs when the null hypothesis is accepted although in the population the research hypothesis is true. The population means are

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MAJOR PAPER-FINAL

  

Major Paper – FINAL

DUE: May 19, 2019 11:55 PM

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Apr   1, 2019 12:05 AM

 

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Assignment Instructions

Major Paper Assignment Instructions and Grading Rubric

This assignment meets the following Course Learning Objectives:

– Articulate basic drug terminology and drug taking behavior
– Identify the various addictive substances – legal and illegal – and their classifications
– Analyze the reasons people commonly abuse substances
– Analyze how substances affect the mind and body and society

In 2010, The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) released a policy statement addressing the complex relationships among children, adolescents, substance abuse, and the media. This assignment requires a critical examination of the AAP publication and a critique of a media portrayal of substance use, with links made to the AAP statement and course material. Conclusions about the implications of the media portrayals and the policies recommended by the AAP also should be made. Successful completion of this paper will require work over multiple weeks.  A two paragraph summary of the proposed example of substance use portrayal in the media was due by the end of Week 3. The full paper is due at the end of Week 7.

 

This is part one of the assignment that you did

 

This assignment proceeds in four steps: 

 Preparation

 Step One: Read the AAP Policy Statement located below. Make some notes for yourself about points of agreement or disagreement you have with the statement and specific findings regarding media depictions of substance use that you want to assess when you write the paper. 

 

 Step Two: Find a current example of substance use portrayal seen in the media; for example, scenes from a movie, a television show, or a commercial; print ads; or portrayals found in “new media” as discussed in the AAP article. The Internet is a good tool for finding film or television portrayals of substance use as well as examples of print ads if ready access to first-hand media is not available. A two paragraph summary of the proposed example of substance use portrayal in the media that will be used for the paper is due by the end of Week 3. This proposal is a separate assignment and is worth 10 points.

 Construction

 Step Three: Write the paper. Begin the paper with an introduction that summarizes the main findings of the AAP article and previews what will be covered in the coming pages. Next, compare and contrast the portrayal of substance use found in the media with the information learned about that substance in the class and course readings. What messages about the substance are being portrayed? How accurate are those messages relative to the actual data on substance use? Be sure to cite the course readings as needed.

 Continue by comparing and contrasting the portrayal of substance use found in the media with the criticism of media portrayals found in the AAP paper. Does the media example match their arguments or contradict them? What links and connections can be made? Be sure to cite the article as needed. 

 Next, draw some conclusions about the portrayal of substance use found in the media, addressing the following: What are the implications of this type of portrayal? What messages are being sent and to whom? Are those messages an accurate representation of the use of this substance? Should media portrayals be required to be accurate in their depictions of use, showing both positive and negative consequences? 

 Finally, review the guidelines suggested by the AAP at the end of their policy statement and address the following: Although directed specifically at pediatricians, which of those recommendations is most important? Why? Are these recommendations necessary? If followed, will they be effective in addressing the concerns raised earlier in the article? Be sure to cite sources as needed.

 Step Four: 

The required length of this paper is 11 pages, plus a required a cover page and a reference list. Papers must comply with APA formatting rules, including font size and margins, and must have a scholarly focus and tone.  Quoting of published material and use of the first-person “I” are not permitted and will result in point loss. All source material must be paraphrased into your own words and cited appropriately. 

 On submission your work will auto-run through Turnitin.com’s plagiarism checker software.    

 The grading rubric below details specific grading criteria.

The Final Major Paper document should be attached in the appropriate Assignment tab and will be evaluated using the rubric below: 

  

Component

Excellent

Satisfactory 

Needs Improvement 

Unsatisfactory 

Points Earned

 

Introduction

15 Points Possible

Student provides a clear   introduction which summarizes the AAP article and previews the major points   to be covered in the paper.   

Student provides a mostly accurate   introduction which summarizes the AAP article and previews the major points   to be covered in the paper. At times description lacks coherence. 

Student provides a marginal   introduction which summarizes the AAP article and previews the major points   to be covered in the paper. Sufficient details and supporting evidence are   lacking.

Student does not provide an   introduction which summarizes the AAP article or preview the major points to   be covered in the paper.

 

Choice of Media Example

15 Points Possible

Discussion of chosen media   portrayal is clear, accurate, and related to the assignment. Sources are   credited and cited appropriately.   

Discussion of chosen media   portrayal is mostly accurate, and related to the assignment. Sources are   credited and cited. At times description lacks coherence. 

Discussion of chosen media   portrayal is marginally accurate, and related to the assignment. Sources   are credited and cited but not using appropriate formatting. Sufficient   details and supporting evidence are lacking.

Student does not chose a media   portrayal that is accurate and/or related to the assignment. Sources not   credited and cited.

 

Comparison of Media Example to   Class Material

25 Points Possible

Student provides a comparison of   media with information from class material that is clear and   thoughtful. Questions outlined in the assignment are   answered. Sources are credited and cited appropriately.   

Student provides a mostly accurate   comparison of media with information from class material that is largely   clear and thoughtful. Questions outlined in the assignment are mostly   answered. Sources are credited and cited appropriately. At times   description lacks coherence. 

Student provides a marginal   comparison of media with information from class material that is partial   clear and thoughtful. Questions outlined in the assignment are   marginally answered. Sources are credited and cited appropriately.   Sufficient details and supporting evidence are lacking.

Student does not provide a   comparison of media with information from class material. Questions   outlined in the assignment were not answered.

 

Comparison of Media Example to AAP   article

25 Points Possible

Comparison of media presented by   the student with information from the AAP article is clear and   thoughtful. Questions outlined in the assignment are   answered. Sources are credited and cited   appropriately.   

Comparison of media mostly presented   by the student with information from the AAP article is mostly clear and   thoughtful. Questions outlined in the assignment are mostly   answered. Sources are credited and cited appropriately. At times   description lacks coherence. 

Comparison of media marginally   presented by the student with information from the AAP article is mostly   clear and thoughtful. Questions outlined in the assignment are   marginally answered. Sources are credited and cited   appropriately. Sufficient details and supporting evidence are lacking.

Student did not compare media   presented with information from the AAP article. Questions outlined in   the assignment were not answered.  

 

Strength of Conclusion

40 Points Possible

Student provides an insightful and   creative conclusion, logically summarizing the main elements of the case   and the scholarly literature findings, articulating a personal reflection on   the case study analysis process

Student provides a mostly   cogent conclusion, logically summarizing the main elements of the case   and the scholarly literature findings, articulating a personal reflection on   the case study analysis process

At times description lacks   coherence. 

Student provides a   marginal conclusion, loosely summarizing the main elements of the case   and the scholarly literature findings, articulating a personal reflection on   the case study analysis process

Sufficient details and supporting   evidence are lacking.

Student does not provide a   clear conclusion or logically summarizing the main elements of the case   or reference scholarly literature findings; lacks a personal reflection on   the case study analysis process

 

Paper Format and Mechanics;   Spelling, Grammar and Punctuation

30 Points Possible

Work is presented in a logical and   coherent way. Writing is clear, articulate, and error free. Citations are   composed in proper format with few or no errors. Paper is the required   length, is double-spaced with 1-inch top, bottom, left and right margins, and   in Calibri or Times New Roman styles, size 12 font. Cover   page, paper body, citations and References are in the correct APA   format. There are few to no spelling, grammar, or punctuation   errors.

Work is grammatically sound with a   few minor errors. Citations are composed in the proper format with some   errors. 

Work contains frequent grammatical   errors. Citations are inaccurate or improperly formatted. 

Work does not demonstrate   appropriate graduate level writing. 

 

Summary Comments: 

Total Points:   (150   points total)

Supporting Materials

Submission

   

READING

Alcohol

One of the most problematic, licit drugs in our society is alcohol. The simple process of fermenting sugar from a variety of naturally occurring fruits and grains has been ubiquitous across cultures and societies since the beginning of civilization. It is so pervasive within our society as to also seem to be a seamless part of it. One cannot easily characterize a particular type of person or group that is likely to be alcohol dependent; the affliction cuts across all imaginable demographics of society. Some people are able to drink on occasion for pleasure, whether alone or with friends. Others drink on a daily basis; others periodically binge. 

Here’s a quick, 9-minute history of the science, creation and use of alcohol across cultures, courtesy of SciShow.com:

At present, it has been estimated that approximately 18 million Americans have a serious problem related to the use of alcohol. These 30% of all consumers of alcohol account for about 80% of all alcohol consumed. Men outnumber women in heavy alcohol use by a ratio of around three to one.

The heaviest users of alcohol, in turn, directly or indirectly impact an even larger percentage of the population with their subsequent behaviors while intoxicated. The costs of alcohol abuse and dependence are significant: this drug is the third leading cause of death and is implicated in over half of all deaths and injuries in car accidents and half of all physical assaults and homicides. Further, it has been estimated that at least four family members are directly affected from the maladaptive behaviors that follow from the alcohol-abusing individual; you can quickly begin to see extensive the social, familial, occupational, and emotional impact of this disorder. 

What’s the difference between alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence?

The initial psychiatric diagnosis that could be made for an individual that habitually uses alcohol to excess would be alcohol abuse. This diagnosis is characterized by the continued use of alcohol for at least a period of one month, despite having a recurrent physical problem or some serious personal problem in one’s social or occupational functioning because of the excessive drinking or the repeated use of alcohol in situations (e.g., driving) when consumption is physically hazardous.

The diagnosis of alcohol dependence reflects an even greater degree of impairment in individuals compared to alcohol abuse. Alcohol dependence typically involves at least three of the following serious circumstances: (1) drinking alcohol in greater amounts and over a longer period of time than intended by the individual; (2) a strong desire by the individual to reduce consumption and several unsuccessful attempts to do so; (3) spending a great deal of time drinking or recovering from the negative effects of excessive drinking; (4) continued drinking even though physical and/or psychological problems are apparent and problematic in the individual’s life; (5) social, work, or recreational activities have been significantly reduced or abandoned because of excessive drinking; (6) the development of marked tolerance for alcohol; and (7) consumption of alcohol specifically to avoid the symptoms of withdrawal. About 15 percent of men and 10 percent of women in the United States have met the diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence during their lifetime.

How does alcohol affect the brain?

Alcohol, as a drug, acts as a depressant on the individual’s central nervous system. It is a small molecule and is quickly absorbed in the bloodstream. Alcohol is linked to inhibiting receptors for the neurotransmitter GABA. In low doses, alcohol depresses the inhibitory functions of the brain, including those areas of the brain that typically adhere to the social controls and inhibitory rules that people typically follow in society. As the alcohol concentration increases in the bloodstream, the depressive function of alcohol extends from the cerebral cortex to areas of functioning that are further (and deeper) into the brain’s primitive and reflexive areas of functioning. In extreme dosing, inhibition of respiratory and motor centers can occur with other symptoms that include stupor or unconsciousness, cool or damp skin, a weak rapid pulse, and shallow breathing. It should be noted that alcohol can only be metabolized and leave the body at a specific rate, regardless of how quickly (or how much) alcohol has been taken in by the individual, so attempts to quickly “sober up” an individual will be unsuccessful.

For more illustration of the science and physical problems associated with habitual alcohol consumption, check out this 4-minute SciShow.com video:

What are the behavioral effects of using alcohol?

Individuals experiencing alcohol intoxication will exhibit a variety of maladaptive changes in their behavior and psychological functioning. Examples include inappropriate sexual or aggressive behaviors, impaired judgment, quickly changing moods, incoordination, impaired gait, slurred speech, impaired attention and memory (sometimes to the point of blackout), stupor, and unconsciousness. The degree of symptoms is dose dependent with more pronounced symptoms occurring as the alcohol blood-level increases.

Withdrawing from alcohol intoxication (i.e., a hangover) is also dependent on recent dosing, history of chronic abuse, and involves a variety of symptoms which can include autonomic hyperactivity in the form of profuse sweating and rapid heartbeat, hand tremors, nausea or vomiting, fleeting illusions or hallucinations, psychomotor agitation, anxiety. At worst, grand mal seizures can occur following periods of prolonged and heavy use. Another significant withdrawal phenomenon that chronic, prolonged abusers of alcohol can experience is delirium tremens that is characterized by disturbances in cognitive functions (especially consciousness), autonomic hyperactivity, vivid hallucinations, delusions, and agitation.

Chronic alcohol dependence can lead to a medical condition known as Alcohol-Induced Persisting Amnestic Disorder (also known as Wernicke-Korsakoff’s Syndrome). This disorder is believed to be caused by deficiencies in thiamine and Vitamin B because their absorption in blocked with habitual alcohol consumption. Individuals afflicted with this disorders experience retrograde (the past) and anterograde (new knowledge) amnesia as well as confabulation, which is the tendency to attempt to compensate for memory loss by fabricating memories.

What are some of the life problems associated with heavy alcohol use?

The pervasive impact of chronic alcohol abuse can be seen across several important areas of in life that generally impair one’s ability to function adaptively (i.e., take care of oneself in a manner appropriate for one’s age) and experience a good quality of life. It is a complex problem in living with psychological, physical, and behavioral components. These include (1) demonstrating a preoccupation with alcohol and drinking; (2) demonstrating emotional problems (e.g., depression); (3) having overt problems at work, within one’s family, and other important social relationships because of alcoholism; and (4) associated physical problems that result from habitual alcohol consumption.

Given that alcohol is a central nervous system depressant, it shouldn’t be a surprise that depression can become a comorbid (or co-occurring) condition for some individuals. In general, the incidence of depression in substance abusers is quite high. People who drink alcohol heavily to the point of intoxication can experience very strong emotions and are frequently disinhibited (i.e., impulsive). Feelings of hopelessness, helplessness, and suicidal thoughts often accompany bouts of heavy drinking.

To review the relationship among amount (dosing) of alcohol consumed, blood alcohol levels, and effects on the central nervous system and behavioral performance, check out this five-minute Healthy McGill video here:

Who is at greatest risk for abuse or dependence?

Research has demonstrated that two risk factors can contribute significantly to the manifestation of alcohol abuse and dependence in the individual. The first risk factor is a family history of chronic alcohol abuse. Children of alcoholic parents have a higher statistical risk of becoming alcoholics themselves when compared to children of nonalcoholic parents. Whether this represents an increase genetic or environmental risk, however, is difficult to determine since both are intertwined in such instances. A second and independent risk factor that has been identified is those cases where an individual has a genetic predisposition to have low response to the psychoactive effects of alcohol (and, as a result, requires higher amounts of alcohol to become intoxicated). Individuals with this lower response to alcohol are more likely to abuse alcohol, as they require considerably more drinking to obtain the level of intoxication experienced by others who drink less to get the same effect.

When taken together, an adult child of an alcoholic who also possesses a low response to the effects of alcohol has an even higher statistical chance of developing a pattern of alcoholism. Keep in mind that all of these examples are just risk factors and statistically probabilities – none of these outcomes are written in stone. Further, research demonstrates that there are also protective factors (variables) in the environment that can also help promote resiliency in some individuals and lead them not to drink alcohol in an excessive or maladaptive fashion when they are present. Clearly, again, the path to alcoholism (and responsible drinking and abstinence) is multi-factorial.

What are some of the treatment options for Alcohol Dependence?

        Unfortunately, flaws in methodology jeopardize much of the research on the effectiveness of alcohol treatment programs. That is, the studies aren’t well controlled in terms of error variance and it cannot be clearly determined whether the observed changes in the studies are due to the employed treatment or other, uncontrolled, factors during the study. For example, many studies do not use untreated comparison groups. One generalization that can be made from the available research is that formal treatments are not always adequate or even necessary. A positive outcome to treatment appears to be related more to the presence of certain psychosocial factors like specific threats to one’s physical or social well-being (i.e., hitting “rock bottom”) than any particular intervention. 

        There are, however, some treatments that have had some success. These treatments have several components in common, including covert sensitization and other forms of aversive counterconditioning. Antabuse, for example, is a medication that, when taken, will result in an individual becoming violently ill should they consume alcohol. Other treatments that put together broad-spectrum interventions such as social skills training, learning to drink in moderation, stress management techniques, and teaching coping skills and other self-control techniques help to teach the individual better, healthier alternatives methods when faced with environmental triggers to consuming alcohol.

        Many modern programs incorporate aspects of Alcoholics Anonymous and/or the drug Antabuse. However, the effectiveness of these treatments has not been empirically demonstrated. One criticism that has been levied on these treatments is that they do not take into account individual differences and the wide variety of psychosocial problems and/or lack of resources that can make successfully managing alcohol consumption. In general, individuals with severe problems with alcohol require more intensive treatments (e.g., inpatient hospitalization), while those who experience less pathological problems require more periodic, milder interventions.

        Another criticism that has been raised about some current treatment programs for alcohol abuse and dependence is that they tend to be based on the belief that failures in treatment are largely due to the individual’s denial of having a problem or otherwise not having an adequate level of motivation. Many therapists have not supported this line of thinking, however. Research on treatment outcome, alternatively, points to the importance of therapist factors such as their level of empathy toward clients and their attitudes about what constitutes healthy recovery as being more related to positive outcomes than client’s own motivation or personality characteristics. 

        Some experts in the field of alcohol research have emphasized the importance of the clients’ reaction to instances of relapse, especially from a cognitive (how they think) and emotional (how they feel) perspectives.  Researchers stress the need to get away from the idea that a relapse represents a “violation of abstinence” which can lead to anxiety, depression, self-blame and an increased likelihood of further alcohol consumption. Alternatively, relapses should be characterized as a mistake that came about from external, controllable factors and not the result of internal factors (e.g., personality characteristics) that are essentially thought to be out of one’s control.

Dually diagnosed individuals (those with a mental illness or personality disorder in addition to a substance abuse disorder) usually have a hard time finding treatment in one place. In many jurisdictions, they have to see a therapist at a mental health center and a separate therapist at a substance abuse center, or they are forced to make a choice of one over the other. You will find that there is often a lack of cross-training between mental health and substance abuse professionals, and that makes it harder for clients to get the treatment they need. Furthermore, in some places, you may find that the treatment support groups for substance abuse have an interpretation of sobriety that prohibits the use of psychotropic medication.

Legal Drugs in Our Society – Part II

        Hopefully, you have found the historical account to date of which drugs have largely been considered illicit, those that have typically been licit and readily available, and those that have switched from one designation to the other, to be an interesting review. Such distinctions among different groups of people and across different periods of time often speak to the changing cultural, social, religious, and scientific beliefs and morays of the time. This week, you will be studying two very popular and legally sanctioned drugs, tobacco and caffeine, that have been readily consumed by people since the beginnings of structured societies. 

Tobacco

From its use in religious ceremonies and purported medicinal herb thousands of years ago to the image of sophistication and modernism it has held in industrialized societies over the last few hundred years, tobacco has occupied a role of prominence among individuals and groups alike.  Think about it: what other drug has been so popularized in society as to be physically accommodated with lighters and ashtrays in automobiles and airplanes? What about spittoons in the restaurants and bars of the late 1800s and early 1900s? How about the smoking cars in trains and smoking sections at airports and restaurants? All these examples serve to demonstrate just how indoctrinated tobacco use has been in modern culture. 

How did tobacco, the plant, get to be such a big deal? Check out this 8-minute history and science video from DNews Plus:

How have patterns of tobacco use changed over the decades in the United States and the world? What are some of the reasons for these changes?

Tobacco is interesting and noteworthy in that it is one of the only drugs that has been commercially available, openly accessible, and integrated within the culture of many societies for hundreds and hundreds of years. Further, it has been monetized as a commodity with economic value for the purposes of trade and payment of debts. In some circles, over time and across cultures, tobacco was even used as its own form of currency. In fact, one could certainly argue that the colonization, formation, and military defense of the United States of America occurred largely in part through the economic power generated through tobacco cultivation, sale, and distribution to other European countries.

It is interesting to note the relationship between the amount of government regulation that exists with the tobacco industry and the resultant use by population. There is a clear relationship between the growing regulation in the United States that began in the early 1970s and the eventual decline of tobacco use among large segments of the U.S. population. This can be especially seen in new generational cohorts; that is, the adoption of chronic smoking habits by younger people. Many other European and South American countries do not employ such heavy restrictions on the advertisement, marketing, and accessibility of cigarettes and other tobacco products upon their population. As a result, the decreases in use and dependence that have been realized in the United States have not been generalized to other countries across the world. The zenith of tobacco use in the United States has come and gone. The preponderance of research has clearly demonstrated its pathological effect on the body and that information, plus rigorous regulation, has helped contribute to the decline in its use.

There are a variety of ways to consume tobacco products as a vehicle by which to introduce the drug nicotine into the bloodstream and the brain. Smoking (via cigars, pipes, and cigarettes), chewing, and snuffing are all legitimized drug-using behaviors whose differing favorability has waxed and waned over the years. Over the years, most individuals were shaped into eventually preferring the use of tobacco cigarettes, which could be mass-produced in very high volumes inexpensively.

The intense and intentional role of marketing has been very significant in shaping the appeal to certain demographic groups of the population. The aggressiveness of early mass marketing campaigns also extended themselves, ultimately, to the denial and cover up by corporate America with regards to the deleterious effects of tobacco use. It wasn’t until 1964 that the federal government began to formally investigate the health effects and cost of tobacco use and to institute policies that would eventually lead to the restriction of marketing and sales in the United States. 

What are some of the adverse consequences of smoking?

The deleterious effects, both physically and psychologically, that result from chronic tobacco use have been well documented. The three-fold combination of carbon monoxide, tar, and nicotine can produce a wide variety of lifelong physical ailments, including a higher risk for cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, and lung cancer than for nonsmokers. As is widely popularized, there are literally thousands of chemical found in cigarette smoke, including ones commonly used in pesticides. Additionally, other forms of cancer have also been implicated with chronic tobacco use. In fact, the vast majority of deaths each year that can be attributed to drug use and dependence are the result of tobacco use and nicotine dependence.

The primary psychoactive drug in tobacco, nicotine, has been determined by research trials to be a dependence-producing substance. As you recall from previous lectures, drug dependence is defined by continued use of a drug even in the face of obvious occupational, physical, familial, and social problems that one experiences in direct relation to its use. This also includes the psychological experience of craving and high drug-seeking behaviors. The rate at which nicotine is absorbed into the blood stream and penetrates the blood-brain barrier certainly speaks to its strong psychoactive properties. Withdrawal symptoms begin as early as six hours after the last dose. Within 24 hours, common complaints can include headache, irritability, problems concentrating, and sleep disturbance. Finally, in the late 1990s, the tobacco industry finally conceded publically that the products they were producing were not only physically harmful to individuals but also that the nicotine contained within then was a dependence-inducing substance.

What are some of the best strategies to employ when attempting to stop using tobacco products?

    You know just how difficult it is to treat nicotine addiction in terms of a smoking cessation program. The research has demonstrated, much like successful treatment programs for other types of drugs, that have a high degree of dependence, that a multimo

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Effective communication between professional health care staff, and cancer patients.

Hi,

I have attached the instructions to this email on a pdf file. I have started my research,I have decided on what I want to do my proposal on. My Teacher has commented on the paragraph I have already done so please take a look.

Thank you

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Culturally Inclusive Teaching and Empowerment

Teachers of ELLs must understand the role of language and culture in learning, as well as the unique political and psychological factors that affect language acquisition among long-term English learners (LTELs), recent arrivals (RAEL), and students with interrupted formal education (SIFEs). Beyond the classroom, teachers can ensure the success of their students by implementing culturally inclusive practices, and by engaging and empowering families of ELL.

For this assignment, create a 15-20 slide digital presentation in two parts to educate your colleagues about meeting the needs of specific ELLs and making connections between school and family.

Part 1

In the first part of your presentation, provide your colleagues with useful information about unique factors that affect language acquisition among LTELs, RAELs, and SIFEs.

This part of the presentation should include:

  • A description of the characteristics of LTELs, RAELs, and SIFEs
  • An explanation of the cultural, sociocultural, psychological, or political factors that affect the language acquisition of LTELs, RAELs, and SIFEs
  • A discussion of factors that affect the language acquisition of refugee, migrant, immigrant and Native American ELLs and how each of these ELLs may relate to LTELs, RAEL, or SIFEs
  • A discussion of additional factors that affect the language acquisition of grades K-12 LTELs, RAEL, and SIFEs

Part 2

In the second part of the presentation, recommend culturally inclusive practices within curriculum and instruction. Provide useful resources that would empower the family members of ELLs.

This part of the presentation should include:

  • Examples of curriculum and materials, including technology, that promote a culturally inclusive classroom environment.
  • Examples of strategies that support culturally inclusive practices.
  • A brief description of how home and school partnerships facilitate learning.
  • At least two resources for families of ELLs that would empower them to become partners in their child’s academic achievement.
  • Presenter’s notes, title, and reference slides that contain 3-5 scholarly resources.

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and in-text citations and references should be presented using the documentation guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

 

LINKS FOR HELP PROVIDED:

 

View the “ELL Parent Involvement” video.

URL:

https://youtu.be/3_-aLWOk9Og

View the “Immersion: A Short Fiction Film” video.

URL:

http://www.immersionfilm.com/

Review “A Closer Look at Culture,” located on The National Center for Cultural Competence website.

URL:

https://nccc.georgetown.edu/documents/pptculture.pdf

 

Read “How to Support ELL Students with Interrupted Formal Education (SIFEs),” by Robertson and Lafond, located on the Colorín Colorado website.

URL:

http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/how-support-ell-students-interrupted-formal-education-sifes

Read “Building Culturally Responsive Communities,” by Polleck and Shabdin, from Clearing House (2013).

URL:

https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=88089498&site=ehost-live&scope=site

 

Read “Building Culturally Responsive Communities,” by Polleck and Shabdin, from Clearing House (2013).

URL:

https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=88089498&site=ehost-live&scope=site

 

Read “Building Culturally Responsive Communities,” by Polleck and Shabdin, from Clearing House (2013).

URL:

https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=88089498&site=ehost-live&scope=site

 

Read “Border Kids in the Home of the Brave,” by Zimmerman-Orozco, from Educational Leadership (2015).

URL:

https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ1062901&site=eds-live&scope=site

 

Read “Are Schools Getting Tongue-Tied? ESL Programs Face New Challenges,” by Schachter, from District Administration (2013).

URL:

https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ1013941&site=eds-live&scope=site

 

Read “Improving Family-School Communication with Parents of Long-Term English Learners,” by Bermudez, Kanaya, and Santiago, from Communique(2017).

URL:

https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ehh&AN=123022303&site=ehost-live&scope=site

 

Read Chapters 1, 8, and 10.

URL:

http://www.gcumedia.com/digital-resources/pearson/2017/crosscultural-language-and-academic-development-handbook_a-complete-k-12-reference-guide_6e.php

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Culturally Inclusive Teaching and Empowerment

Teachers of ELLs must understand the role of language and culture in learning, as well as the unique political and psychological factors that affect language acquisition among long-term English learners (LTELs), recent arrivals (RAEL), and students with interrupted formal education (SIFEs). Beyond the classroom, teachers can ensure the success of their students by implementing culturally inclusive practices, and by engaging and empowering families of ELL.

For this assignment, create a 15-20 slide digital presentation in two parts to educate your colleagues about meeting the needs of specific ELLs and making connections between school and family.

Part 1

In the first part of your presentation, provide your colleagues with useful information about unique factors that affect language acquisition among LTELs, RAELs, and SIFEs.

This part of the presentation should include:

  • A description of the characteristics of LTELs, RAELs, and SIFEs
  • An explanation of the cultural, sociocultural, psychological, or political factors that affect the language acquisition of LTELs, RAELs, and SIFEs
  • A discussion of factors that affect the language acquisition of refugee, migrant, immigrant and Native American ELLs and how each of these ELLs may relate to LTELs, RAEL, or SIFEs
  • A discussion of additional factors that affect the language acquisition of grades K-12 LTELs, RAEL, and SIFEs

Part 2

In the second part of the presentation, recommend culturally inclusive practices within curriculum and instruction. Provide useful resources that would empower the family members of ELLs.

This part of the presentation should include:

  • Examples of curriculum and materials, including technology, that promote a culturally inclusive classroom environment.
  • Examples of strategies that support culturally inclusive practices.
  • A brief description of how home and school partnerships facilitate learning.
  • At least two resources for families of ELLs that would empower them to become partners in their child’s academic achievement.
  • Presenter’s notes, title, and reference slides that contain 3-5 scholarly resources.

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and in-text citations and references should be presented using the documentation guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

 

LINKS FOR HELP PROVIDED:

 

View the “ELL Parent Involvement” video.

URL:

https://youtu.be/3_-aLWOk9Og

View the “Immersion: A Short Fiction Film” video.

URL:

http://www.immersionfilm.com/

Review “A Closer Look at Culture,” located on The National Center for Cultural Competence website.

URL:

https://nccc.georgetown.edu/documents/pptculture.pdf

 

Read “How to Support ELL Students with Interrupted Formal Education (SIFEs),” by Robertson and Lafond, located on the Colorín Colorado website.

URL:

http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/how-support-ell-students-interrupted-formal-education-sifes

Read “Building Culturally Responsive Communities,” by Polleck and Shabdin, from Clearing House (2013).

URL:

https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=88089498&site=ehost-live&scope=site

 

Read “Building Culturally Responsive Communities,” by Polleck and Shabdin, from Clearing House (2013).

URL:

https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=88089498&site=ehost-live&scope=site

 

Read “Building Culturally Responsive Communities,” by Polleck and Shabdin, from Clearing House (2013).

URL:

https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=88089498&site=ehost-live&scope=site

 

Read “Border Kids in the Home of the Brave,” by Zimmerman-Orozco, from Educational Leadership (2015).

URL:

https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ1062901&site=eds-live&scope=site

 

Read “Are Schools Getting Tongue-Tied? ESL Programs Face New Challenges,” by Schachter, from District Administration (2013).

URL:

https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ1013941&site=eds-live&scope=site

 

Read “Improving Family-School Communication with Parents of Long-Term English Learners,” by Bermudez, Kanaya, and Santiago, from Communique(2017).

URL:

https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ehh&AN=123022303&site=ehost-live&scope=site

 

Read Chapters 1, 8, and 10.

URL:

http://www.gcumedia.com/digital-resources/pearson/2017/crosscultural-language-and-academic-development-handbook_a-complete-k-12-reference-guide_6e.php

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Topic 2: Language Basics

QUESTION1:

Why is it important for ELL teachers to be thoughtful about the elements of language within ELL instruction?

 

QUESTION2:

What is the difference between language learning and language acquisition? Provide examples to support your explanation.

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Language Elements

The most effective strategies, approaches, and methods for teaching ELLs are supported by language acquisition theories. English language acquisition can be promoted by understanding language as an interconnected system and by integrating the discourse and rhetorical structures of ELLs within instruction.

For this assignment, you will devise a language game or communication activity that is informed by language acquisition theory and integrates listening, speaking, reading, and writing for a grade level within grades K-12.

For your chosen grade level, select a standard from the Arizona English Language Arts (ELA) and a corresponding standard from the Arizona English Language Proficiency (ELP) to be included within this game or activity. Create at least one learning objective for your game or activity that is aligned with your chosen ELA and ELP standards.

Within a 500-750 word submission, include the following:

  1. The ELA and ELP standards as well as the learning objective(s) to be addressed within your game or activity
  2. A complete explanation of the game or activity and how it would be carried out in an educational setting
  3. A list of the materials needed for your game or activity
  4. A brief description of at least one language acquisition theory and how it informed the design of your game or activity
  5. A brief definition of phonetics, phonology, morphology, lexicon, semantics, syntax, and pragmatics. Additionally, include a description of how each of these elements relate to the verbal and written exercises within your game or activity.

Support your submission with at least three scholarly resources.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

 

LINKS:

 

Review the Key Terms in the ESL Database.

URL:

http://lc.gcumedia.com/zwebassets/courseMaterialPages/esl5000_eslDatabase.php

 

Review the “English Language Proficiency Standards Guidance Document,” located on the Arizona Department of Education website.

URL:

https://cms.azed.gov/home/GetDocumentFile?id=54de1d88aadebe14a87070f0

 

Review the English Language Proficiency Standards, located on the Arizona Department of Education website.

URL:

http://www.azed.gov/oelas/elps/

 

Review the Arizona K-12 academic standards for the content area of your choice.

URL:

http://www.azed.gov/standards-practices/

 

Read “Theories and Research of Second Language Acquisition,” by Malone, located on the SIL International website.

URL:

http://www.sil.org/sites/default/files/files/theories_and_research_of_second_language_acquisition.pdf

 

Read “An Integration of ‘Backwards Planning’ Unit Design with the ‘Two-Step’ Lesson Planning Framework,” by Jones, Vermette, and Jones, from Education (2009).

URL:

https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=47349827&site=eds-live&scope=site

 

Read “An Integration of ‘Backwards Planning’ Unit Design with the ‘Two-Step’ Lesson Planning Framework,” by Jones, Vermette, and Jones, from Education (2009).

URL:

https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=47349827&site=eds-live&scope=site

 

Read “Engaging Your Beginners,” by Hill, from Educational Leadership (2016).

URL:

https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ofs&AN=112867386&site=eds-live&scope=site

 

Read “Do Early Literacy Skills in Children’s First Language Promote Development of Skills in Their Second Language? An Experimental Evaluation of Transfer,” by Goodrich, Lonigan, and Farver, from Journal of Educational Psychology (2013).

URL:

https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ehh&AN=87508960&site=eds-live&scope=site

 

Read “What a Case Study Reveals: Facing the New Challenge and Learning the Basics in Second Language Acquisition,” by Li, Mitchell, and Howard, from National Teacher Education Journal (2011).

URL:

https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ehh&AN=85343752&site=eds-live&scope=site

 

Read Chapters 2-3.

URL:

http://www.gcumedia.com/digital-resources/pearson/2017/crosscultural-language-and-academic-development-handbook_a-complete-k-12-reference-guide_6e.php

 

 

WE ALL KNOW CLASSWORK IS BORING. THUS, OUR ESSAY HELP SERVICE EXISTS TO HELP STUDENTS WHO ARE OVERWHELMED WITH STUDIES. ORDER YOUR CUSTOM PAPER FOR 20% DISCOUNT. USE CODE SAVE20

Assignment 1: Case Study Assignment: Assessing the Head, Eyes, Ears, Nose, and Throat

To Prepare

  • By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to a specific case study for this Case Study Assignment. Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignment from your Instructor.
  • Also, your Case Study Assignment should be in the Episodic/Focused SOAP Note format rather than the traditional narrative style format. Refer to Chapter 2 of the Sullivan text and the Episodic/Focused SOAP Template in the Week 5 Learning Resources for guidance. Remember that all Episodic/Focused SOAP Notes have specific data included in every patient case.

With regard to the case study you were assigned:

  • Review this week’s Learning Resources and consider the insights they provide.
  • Consider what history would be necessary to collect from the patient.
  • Consider what physical exams and diagnostic tests would be appropriate to gather more information about the patient’s condition. How would the results be used to make a diagnosis?
  • Identify at least five possible conditions that may be considered in a differential diagnosis for the patient.

The Assignment

Use the Episodic/Focused SOAP Template and create an episodic/focused note about the patient in the case study to which you were assigned using the episodic/focused note template provided in the Week 5 resources. Provide evidence from the literature to support diagnostic tests that would be appropriate for each case. List five different possible conditions for the patient’s differential diagnosis and justify why you selected each.

 

 

 

Case 1: Nose Focused Exam Richard is a 50-year-old male with nasal congestion, sneezing, rhinorrhea, and postnasal drainage. Richard has struggled with an itchy nose, eyes, palate, and ears for 5 days. As you check his ears and throat for redness and inflammation, you notice him touch his fingers to the bridge of his nose to press and rub there. He says he’s taken Mucinex OTC the past two nights to help him breathe while he sleeps. When you ask if the Mucinex has helped at all, he sneers slightly and gestures that the improvement is only minimal. Richard is alert and oriented. He has pale, boggy nasal mucosa with clear thin secretions and enlarged nasal turbinates, which obstruct airway flow but his lungs are clear. His tonsils are not enlarged but his throat is mildly erythematous.

WE ALL KNOW CLASSWORK IS BORING. THUS, OUR ESSAY HELP SERVICE EXISTS TO HELP STUDENTS WHO ARE OVERWHELMED WITH STUDIES. ORDER YOUR CUSTOM PAPER FOR 20% DISCOUNT. USE CODE SAVE20

paraphrase the lab

 

i want you to paraphrase ever single text in the lab. i uploaded a file with an old lab where i want you to change all the text and make totally new and different lab. 

JUST CHANGE THE TEXT AND KEEP THE “NUMBERS AND FORMULA” THE SAME 

WE ALL KNOW CLASSWORK IS BORING. THUS, OUR ESSAY HELP SERVICE EXISTS TO HELP STUDENTS WHO ARE OVERWHELMED WITH STUDIES. ORDER YOUR CUSTOM PAPER FOR 20% DISCOUNT. USE CODE SAVE20

Can anybody do this by Friday 9-22-17

  Psychology Work

Lctubman Field: Psychology Posted: 5 Days Ago Due: 18/09/2017 Budget:  $100

Report Issue

DUE 9-18-17 

Final Project

For your Final Project, you will create a website that showcases the skills you have gained throughout your psychology program.  Your website will consist of the following elements: a homepage, a literature review, expert opinions, résumés, a case study, and a list of pertinent websites.  Each of these sections will be its own tab on the website.  When complete, you may choose to use this website after graduation as a means to showcase your abilities to potential employers and/or graduate schools.    

To begin, review the elements required for each section of your website below.  

Next, visit the Wix.com (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. website to familiarize yourself with this technology.  Scroll down on the webpage and click the pink arrow to view a quick tour video of the website platform.  Note: This site is best viewed using either the Chrome or Firefox web browsers.  Refer to the Wix.com Quick-Start Guide (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.for step-by-step instructions on setting up your website.   

Wix_com_Quick_Start_Guide.pdf 

If you experience any technical difficulties, please visit the Wix Support Center (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. The technical support offered through your Student Portal will not be able to assist you with the Wix website.  When you are ready to create your website, click the Start Now button to register and begin building.  If you are unable to utilize the Wix platform to complete this assignment and you have already watched the tutorial, read through the Wix.com Quick-Start Guide, and contacted the Wix Support Center, please contact your instructor.    

It is highly recommended that you complete any and all written work in a separate document first and then cut and paste the required content into your webpage. This will allow you to edit and save your work separate from the website, should anything occur which causes the website to fail.  Additionally, you will be able to work on your content without having to remain connected to the internet and it may be easier to develop and edit your content in Word, prior to publishing it on your website.   

Sections of the Final Project will be completed within the course weeks and will be revised for inclusion in this project. Carefully review all suggestions and comments from the instructor and/or your classmates before including that work within the content of your website.

Clearly label the website as your course project. Although it will not be searchable to the general public, it will be publicly available and anyone who is given your specific site link will be able to view it.

Copy and paste the URL to your website into a Word document for submission. Once you have received your final grade for this course, you have the option of deleting this website through your account with Wix.com.

Creating the Website

The website:
Must be named with the following convention: your last name + PSY496 Final Project. Example: Smith PSY496 Final Project.  Must include six tabs with the following headings and information. Watch the screencast video below to assist you with setting up your required tabs. Home Page
Briefly introduce yourself and provide information regarding your professional background. Summarize your experiences within the Psychology program at Ashford University and what you hope to do upon graduation. You may include a professional photograph as well. Literature Review
Create a brief literature review that presents a fair and comprehensive analysis of relevant literature pertaining to the topic you chose in Week One. This page must include the following:
A brief introduction of the topic and its relevance (300 to 500 words). Three to five peer-reviewed articles based on applied psychological research. Each of the articles must directly relate to your chosen topic. A one- to two-paragraph (500 to750 words total) analysis and summary for each article. A reference list at the bottom of the page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Expert Opinions
Begin with the work you completed for the Mental Health Disciplines discussion in Week Three. In this section, you will demonstrate your awareness of the psychological career alternatives in a community setting and take on the role of two experts in different fields of psychology.  You will also evaluate contributions of psychological research in the applied context of these experts and discuss methodological issues unique to their areas of psychological research.    Take into consideration the comments your classmates and your instructor made on your discussion post. Include information from at least two peer-reviewed articles of your choosing that were published within the last five years to substantiate your experts’ claims.  The sources may not be any of those that are listed within this course.  For information on how to generate search terms for specific resources, visit the Ashford University Library website. Make any necessary changes to your presentation and create a new oral video presentation using a screencast program such as Jing and Screencast-O-Matic. You may also use YouTube or a voiceover PowerPoint saved as a video file with audio. Using the instructions on the Wix.com platform, embed the video of your oral presentation (screencast or video) in the Expert Opinions page of your website. As an alternative to embedding your video, you may copy and paste a working URL on the Expert Opinions page. Résumés
Begin with the work you completed for the Develop Professional Résumés assignment in Week Three. Based on the feedback from your instructor, make the recommended changes to the résumés you created for the two experts from the Presentation by Experts discussion in Week Three and the Expert Opinions web page you created.
Next, create your own professional résumé, that includes brief descriptions of the major duties associated with any relevant work experience you have.
Your résumé should appear first on the page followed by the résumés you created for the experts. To begin constructing your personal résumé, utilize the Resume Builder tool provided by Ashford University. This will allow you to create drafts of your résumé so that you may revise and refine your assignments before submitting them. Because your final project will be available for public viewing, do not include your actual personal contact information (i.e., address, phone number, email). To utilize this tool: Log into the Ashford University Student Portal Click on Job Search & Resume Builder link under Career Services Go to the My Documents Tab Select the Resume Builder Tab Create, save and edit these résumés to meet your assignment guidelines. Case Study
Begin with the work you completed for the Case Study: Evaluating Ashford University Institutional & Program Outcomes assignment in Week One. Review the feedback you received from your instructor and then create a case study that takes on the role you did not pursue. If you used your own story or that of a willing volunteer for the original assignment, then you will create a case study for a fictitious character. If you created a character for the case study in the original assignment, then you will use your own story or that of a willing adult volunteer. In this section, you will:
Create a 750- to 1000-word case study of a real (either yourself or a willing adult volunteer) or fictitious person who has developed the competencies of their academic program at Ashford University.   Evaluate your real or fictitious person’s learning within the program as it contributes to the overall attainment of the institutional outcomes. Include at least one personal life example and one career example of applying the competencies to resolve personal challenges and an ethical dilemma (e.g., a client or research subject reveals compromising information about a friend or family member who also happens to be someone you know in a personal/social context). Create or describe a scenario in which the person wrestles with an issue related to the assigned research topic in her or his personal and/or professional life. Be specific in your discussion of the scenario and provide details demonstrating professional problem solving on the part of the person in your case study. Include a section wherein your fictitious person or you articulate a personal point of view, evaluate evidence, determine options for responding and evaluate the pros and cons of the options prior to making a decision about a course of action within the scenario. Conclude with how the problem was resolved and what the person learned while at Ashford University that assisted in an effective resolution. Websites
Create an annotated list of 10 to 12 reputable, professional websites (e.g., government agencies, professional organizations, professional associations…) that are relevant to psychological research and practice. Commercial or non-academic websites may not be used for this assignment. Consider the merits of each website.  Based on your knowledge of scholarly applications of psychological research, evaluate the use of scholarly applied psychological research and analyze the interpretations that are presented on each site.  For information on how to evaluate web resources, visit the Ashford University Library website.   The list should be in alphabetical order with each website cited according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. The annotations should be four to five sentences long and reflect the relevance and usefulness of each website in terms of your topics of psychological research and your professional needs.

In addition, your website must:
Include a footer with the date submitted (in Copyright section). Address the topics of each page with critical thought. Use the number of peer-reviewed sources listed with the instructions for each web page. Document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.   Include a separate reference section at the bottom of each web page, for the sources used on that page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Edit question’s body 2psy496assignment1.docx Resume1psy496.docx discussion1week3.pptx  Psychology Work

Lctubman Field: Psychology Posted: 5 Days Ago Due: 18/09/2017 Budget:  $100

Report Issue

DUE 9-18-17 

Final Project

For your Final Project, you will create a website that showcases the skills you have gained throughout your psychology program.  Your website will consist of the following elements: a homepage, a literature review, expert opinions, résumés, a case study, and a list of pertinent websites.  Each of these sections will be its own tab on the website.  When complete, you may choose to use this website after graduation as a means to showcase your abilities to potential employers and/or graduate schools.    

To begin, review the elements required for each section of your website below.  

Next, visit the Wix.com (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. website to familiarize yourself with this technology.  Scroll down on the webpage and click the pink arrow to view a quick tour video of the website platform.  Note: This site is best viewed using either the Chrome or Firefox web browsers.  Refer to the Wix.com Quick-Start Guide (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.for step-by-step instructions on setting up your website.   

Wix_com_Quick_Start_Guide.pdf 

If you experience any technical difficulties, please visit the Wix Support Center (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. The technical support offered through your Student Portal will not be able to assist you with the Wix website.  When you are ready to create your website, click the Start Now button to register and begin building.  If you are unable to utilize the Wix platform to complete this assignment and you have already watched the tutorial, read through the Wix.com Quick-Start Guide, and contacted the Wix Support Center, please contact your instructor.    

It is highly recommended that you complete any and all written work in a separate document first and then cut and paste the required content into your webpage. This will allow you to edit and save your work separate from the website, should anything occur which causes the website to fail.  Additionally, you will be able to work on your content without having to remain connected to the internet and it may be easier to develop and edit your content in Word, prior to publishing it on your website.   

Sections of the Final Project will be completed within the course weeks and will be revised for inclusion in this project. Carefully review all suggestions and comments from the instructor and/or your classmates before including that work within the content of your website.

Clearly label the website as your course project. Although it will not be searchable to the general public, it will be publicly available and anyone who is given your specific site link will be able to view it.

Copy and paste the URL to your website into a Word document for submission. Once you have received your final grade for this course, you have the option of deleting this website through your account with Wix.com.

Creating the Website

The website:
Must be named with the following convention: your last name + PSY496 Final Project. Example: Smith PSY496 Final Project.  Must include six tabs with the following headings and information. Watch the screencast video below to assist you with setting up your required tabs. Home Page
Briefly introduce yourself and provide information regarding your professional background. Summarize your experiences within the Psychology program at Ashford University and what you hope to do upon graduation. You may include a professional photograph as well. Literature Review
Create a brief literature review that presents a fair and comprehensive analysis of relevant literature pertaining to the topic you chose in Week One. This page must include the following:
A brief introduction of the topic and its relevance (300 to 500 words). Three to five peer-reviewed articles based on applied psychological research. Each of the articles must directly relate to your chosen topic. A one- to two-paragraph (500 to750 words total) analysis and summary for each article. A reference list at the bottom of the page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Expert Opinions
Begin with the work you completed for the Mental Health Disciplines discussion in Week Three. In this section, you will demonstrate your awareness of the psychological career alternatives in a community setting and take on the role of two experts in different fields of psychology.  You will also evaluate contributions of psychological research in the applied context of these experts and discuss methodological issues unique to their areas of psychological research.    Take into consideration the comments your classmates and your instructor made on your discussion post. Include information from at least two peer-reviewed articles of your choosing that were published within the last five years to substantiate your experts’ claims.  The sources may not be any of those that are listed within this course.  For information on how to generate search terms for specific resources, visit the Ashford University Library website. Make any necessary changes to your presentation and create a new oral video presentation using a screencast program such as Jing and Screencast-O-Matic. You may also use YouTube or a voiceover PowerPoint saved as a video file with audio. Using the instructions on the Wix.com platform, embed the video of your oral presentation (screencast or video) in the Expert Opinions page of your website. As an alternative to embedding your video, you may copy and paste a working URL on the Expert Opinions page. Résumés
Begin with the work you completed for the Develop Professional Résumés assignment in Week Three. Based on the feedback from your instructor, make the recommended changes to the résumés you created for the two experts from the Presentation by Experts discussion in Week Three and the Expert Opinions web page you created.
Next, create your own professional résumé, that includes brief descriptions of the major duties associated with any relevant work experience you have.
Your résumé should appear first on the page followed by the résumés you created for the experts. To begin constructing your personal résumé, utilize the Resume Builder tool provided by Ashford University. This will allow you to create drafts of your résumé so that you may revise and refine your assignments before submitting them. Because your final project will be available for public viewing, do not include your actual personal contact information (i.e., address, phone number, email). To utilize this tool: Log into the Ashford University Student Portal Click on Job Search & Resume Builder link under Career Services Go to the My Documents Tab Select the Resume Builder Tab Create, save and edit these résumés to meet your assignment guidelines. Case Study
Begin with the work you completed for the Case Study: Evaluating Ashford University Institutional & Program Outcomes assignment in Week One. Review the feedback you received from your instructor and then create a case study that takes on the role you did not pursue. If you used your own story or that of a willing volunteer for the original assignment, then you will create a case study for a fictitious character. If you created a character for the case study in the original assignment, then you will use your own story or that of a willing adult volunteer. In this section, you will:
Create a 750- to 1000-word case study of a real (either yourself or a willing adult volunteer) or fictitious person who has developed the competencies of their academic program at Ashford University.   Evaluate your real or fictitious person’s learning within the program as it contributes to the overall attainment of the institutional outcomes. Include at least one personal life example and one career example of applying the competencies to resolve personal challenges and an ethical dilemma (e.g., a client or research subject reveals compromising information about a friend or family member who also happens to be someone you know in a personal/social context). Create or describe a scenario in which the person wrestles with an issue related to the assigned research topic in her or his personal and/or professional life. Be specific in your discussion of the scenario and provide details demonstrating professional problem solving on the part of the person in your case study. Include a section wherein your fictitious person or you articulate a personal point of view, evaluate evidence, determine options for responding and evaluate the pros and cons of the options prior to making a decision about a course of action within the scenario. Conclude with how the problem was resolved and what the person learned while at Ashford University that assisted in an effective resolution. Websites
Create an annotated list of 10 to 12 reputable, professional websites (e.g., government agencies, professional organizations, professional associations…) that are relevant to psychological research and practice. Commercial or non-academic websites may not be used for this assignment. Consider the merits of each website.  Based on your knowledge of scholarly applications of psychological research, evaluate the use of scholarly applied psychological research and analyze the interpretations that are presented on each site.  For information on how to evaluate web resources, visit the Ashford University Library website.   The list should be in alphabetical order with each website cited according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. The annotations should be four to five sentences long and reflect the relevance and usefulness of each website in terms of your topics of psychological research and your professional needs.

In addition, your website must:
Include a footer with the date submitted (in Copyright section). Address the topics of each page with critical thought. Use the number of peer-reviewed sources listed with the instructions for each web page. Document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.   Include a separate reference section at the bottom of each web page, for the sources used on that page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Edit question’s body 2psy496assignment1.docx Resume1psy496.docx discussion1week3.pptx Psychology Work

Lctubman Field: Psychology Posted: 5 Days Ago Due: 18/09/2017 Budget:  $100

Report Issue

DUE 9-18-17 

Final Project

For your Final Project, you will create a website that showcases the skills you have gained throughout your psychology program.  Your website will consist of the following elements: a homepage, a literature review, expert opinions, résumés, a case study, and a list of pertinent websites.  Each of these sections will be its own tab on the website.  When complete, you may choose to use this website after graduation as a means to showcase your abilities to potential employers and/or graduate schools.    

To begin, review the elements required for each section of your website below.  

Next, visit the Wix.com (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. website to familiarize yourself with this technology.  Scroll down on the webpage and click the pink arrow to view a quick tour video of the website platform.  Note: This site is best viewed using either the Chrome or Firefox web browsers.  Refer to the Wix.com Quick-Start Guide (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.for step-by-step instructions on setting up your website.   

Wix_com_Quick_Start_Guide.pdf 

If you experience any technical difficulties, please visit the Wix Support Center (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. The technical support offered through your Student Portal will not be able to assist you with the Wix website.  When you are ready to create your website, click the Start Now button to register and begin building.  If you are unable to utilize the Wix platform to complete this assignment and you have already watched the tutorial, read through the Wix.com Quick-Start Guide, and contacted the Wix Support Center, please contact your instructor.    

It is highly recommended that you complete any and all written work in a separate document first and then cut and paste the required content into your webpage. This will allow you to edit and save your work separate from the website, should anything occur which causes the website to fail.  Additionally, you will be able to work on your content without having to remain connected to the internet and it may be easier to develop and edit your content in Word, prior to publishing it on your website.   

Sections of the Final Project will be completed within the course weeks and will be revised for inclusion in this project. Carefully review all suggestions and comments from the instructor and/or your classmates before including that work within the content of your website.

Clearly label the website as your course project. Although it will not be searchable to the general public, it will be publicly available and anyone who is given your specific site link will be able to view it.

Copy and paste the URL to your website into a Word document for submission. Once you have received your final grade for this course, you have the option of deleting this website through your account with Wix.com.

Creating the Website

The website:
Must be named with the following convention: your last name + PSY496 Final Project. Example: Smith PSY496 Final Project.  Must include six tabs with the following headings and information. Watch the screencast video below to assist you with setting up your required tabs. Home Page
Briefly introduce yourself and provide information regarding your professional background. Summarize your experiences within the Psychology program at Ashford University and what you hope to do upon graduation. You may include a professional photograph as well. Literature Review
Create a brief literature review that presents a fair and comprehensive analysis of relevant literature pertaining to the topic you chose in Week One. This page must include the following:
A brief introduction of the topic and its relevance (300 to 500 words). Three to five peer-reviewed articles based on applied psychological research. Each of the articles must directly relate to your chosen topic. A one- to two-paragraph (500 to750 words total) analysis and summary for each article. A reference list at the bottom of the page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Expert Opinions
Begin with the work you completed for the Mental Health Disciplines discussion in Week Three. In this section, you will demonstrate your awareness of the psychological career alternatives in a community setting and take on the role of two experts in different fields of psychology.  You will also evaluate contributions of psychological research in the applied context of these experts and discuss methodological issues unique to their areas of psychological research.    Take into consideration the comments your classmates and your instructor made on your discussion post. Include information from at least two peer-reviewed articles of your choosing that were published within the last five years to substantiate your experts’ claims.  The sources may not be any of those that are listed within this course.  For information on how to generate search terms for specific resources, visit the Ashford University Library website. Make any necessary changes to your presentation and create a new oral video presentation using a screencast program such as Jing and Screencast-O-Matic. You may also use YouTube or a voiceover PowerPoint saved as a video file with audio. Using the instructions on the Wix.com platform, embed the video of your oral presentation (screencast or video) in the Expert Opinions page of your website. As an alternative to embedding your video, you may copy and paste a working URL on the Expert Opinions page. Résumés
Begin with the work you completed for the Develop Professional Résumés assignment in Week Three. Based on the feedback from your instructor, make the recommended changes to the résumés you created for the two experts from the Presentation by Experts discussion in Week Three and the Expert Opinions web page you created.
Next, create your own professional résumé, that includes brief descriptions of the major duties associated with any relevant work experience you have.
Your résumé should appear first on the page followed by the résumés you created for the experts. To begin constructing your personal résumé, utilize the Resume Builder tool provided by Ashford University. This will allow you to create drafts of your résumé so that you may revise and refine your assignments before submitting them. Because your final project will be available for public viewing, do not include your actual personal contact information (i.e., address, phone number, email). To utilize this tool: Log into the Ashford University Student Portal Click on Job Search & Resume Builder link under Career Services Go to the My Documents Tab Select the Resume Builder Tab Create, save and edit these résumés to meet your assignment guidelines. Case Study
Begin with the work you completed for the Case Study: Evaluating Ashford University Institutional & Program Outcomes assignment in Week One. Review the feedback you received from your instructor and then create a case study that takes on the role you did not pursue. If you used your own story or that of a willing volunteer for the original assignment, then you will create a case study for a fictitious character. If you created a character for the case study in the original assignment, then you will use your own story or that of a willing adult volunteer. In this section, you will:
Create a 750- to 1000-word case study of a real (either yourself or a willing adult volunteer) or fictitious person who has developed the competencies of their academic program at Ashford University.   Evaluate your real or fictitious person’s learning within the program as it contributes to the overall attainment of the institutional outcomes. Include at least one personal life example and one career example of applying the competencies to resolve personal challenges and an ethical dilemma (e.g., a client or research subject reveals compromising information about a friend or family member who also happens to be someone you know in a personal/social context). Create or describe a scenario in which the person wrestles with an issue related to the assigned research topic in her or his personal and/or professional life. Be specific in your discussion of the scenario and provide details demonstrating professional problem solving on the part of the person in your case study. Include a section wherein your fictitious person or you articulate a personal point of view, evaluate evidence, determine options for responding and evaluate the pros and cons of the options prior to making a decision about a course of action within the scenario. Conclude with how the problem was resolved and what the person learned while at Ashford University that assisted in an effective resolution. Websites
Create an annotated list of 10 to 12 reputable, professional websites (e.g., government agencies, professional organizations, professional associations…) that are relevant to psychological research and practice. Commercial or non-academic websites may not be used for this assignment. Consider the merits of each website.  Based on your knowledge of scholarly applications of psychological research, evaluate the use of scholarly applied psychological research and analyze the interpretations that are presented on each site.  For information on how to evaluate web resources, visit the Ashford University Library website.   The list should be in alphabetical order with each website cited according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. The annotations should be four to five sentences long and reflect the relevance and usefulness of each website in terms of your topics of psychological research and your professional needs.

In addition, your website must:
Include a footer with the date submitted (in Copyr

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