Health promotion involves educating people about healthy lifestyles, reduction of risk, developmental needs, activities of daily living and preventive self-care that enables them to improve their health by making positive decisions (Falkner, 2018). There are three different levels of health promotion. These include primary prevention which occurs before the onset of illness or injury and may involve preventative treatments such as vaccinations and wellness exams to prevent the contraction of illness. They include health promotion and education interventions. Secondary prevention focuses on the early detection and treatment of disease processes before they progress and cause irreparable damage. This stage of prevention is executed through health screenings and early treatment. The goal is to prevent progression of early stages of disease and comorbidities from occurring. Tertiary prevention occurs when a disease process has caused permanent damage of some form. The focus of this level of prevention is to help the patient achieve some semblance of normalcy and acclimate back into their lives and society. Depending on the patient and the magnitude of their complications, they may require extensive rehabilitation (Falkner, 2018).
Prevention, according to Falkner, (2018) refers to the actions required to deter the formation of a problem or complication of an existing problem (Falkner, 2018). The nurse can determine the educational needs of a patient using the levels of prevention depending upon the patients and where they are in their health journey. For example, in primary prevention, the nurse uses community programs aimed at increasing activity level and improving dietary choices for people at risk of heart disease offer an active intervention to prevent heart disease for this population. The idea is to help the patient make informed decisions on a daily basis (Falkner, 2018). In secondary prevention, the nurse uses education as a means to promote health. By educating patients regarding health promotion, nurses, who are proponent of such screenings, can implement measures to prevent further complications. Where as in tertiary prevention, nurses advocate for resources that may be indicated within the patient’s home for daily functioning. Nurses accomplish this by determining the patient’s needs and accessing appropriate members of the health care team to provide resources such as home health care or medical equipment. It also includes patient education where the nurse utilizes this time to present or reiterate education strategies to help prevent further issues from arising (Falkner, 2018).
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Falkner, A. (2018). Health Promotion in Nursing Care. In Grand Canyon University (Ed.), (2018). Health Promotion: Health & Wellness Across the Continuum (Chapter 2). Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs429vn/health-promotion-health-and-wellness-across-the-continuum/v1.1/#/Chapter/2