Inside Out

Watch movie & write 400-600 word essay 

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Presenting professional advise

 

Prior to beginning work on this discussion, please read the American Psychological Association’s Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (2010). 
     
For your initial post, imagine the following scenario:  As a psychology professional, you have been asked to provide a caregiver with your professional opinion regarding how issues related to your chosen topic may influence short and long-term physical, cognitive, or psychosocial development in his or her child. Choose one of the following topics in the area of development to research and discuss:Prenatal development Vaccinations Attachment parenting Daycare Corporal punishment Other:  __________________ (Note: Please obtain permission from your instructor before pursuing this option!)

Focus your discussion around one of the following stages:  the prenatal period, infancy, or toddlerhood (conception – 3 years). 

Using the Ashford University Library, research at least three peer-reviewed articles on your chosen topic that either support or challenge aspects of your chosen issue. Strive to find recent work, but seminal research on the topic should be considered as well.  Evaluate the unique scholarly perspectives found in your research. Based on the research you reviewed, identify your professional position on the topic; specifically, will incorporation of this element have a positive or negative impact on the child’s development? Apply this research to major themes of development influenced by your chosen topic (i.e., physical, cognitive, and/or social) and explain how the literature supports your chosen stance. Point out how your stance compares or contrasts with prevailing popular wisdom on the topic. Your explanation should take the form of a persuasive discussion intended to help the caregiver respond positively to your advice as a psychology professional. Analyze any ethical considerations discussed in the research and their effect(s) on the trends related to your topic. Include the complete references for your selected articles at the end of your initial post.

Guided Response: Review several of your colleagues’ posts and respond to at least two of your peers by 11:59 p.m. on Day 7 of the week. You are encouraged to post your required replies earlier in the week to promote more meaningful and interactive discourse in this discussion. 

Consider the articles your colleague chose and research the topic with the intent to find peer-reviewed articles that were published within the last 10 years demonstrating the opposite viewpoint. If you locate opposing research findings, explain whether or not the evidence is convincing enough to make you question your peer’s stance. Be sure to cite examples in your explanation. If you do not locate any opposing research, explain why you think this type of research is not available. Did your classmate’s persuasive explanation of his or her stance cause you to change your opinion on this topic or consider other options?   Continue to monitor the discussion forum until 5:00 p.m. (Mountain Time) on Day 7 of the week and respond to anyone who replies to your initial post.

Carefully review the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric for the criteria that will be used to evaluate this Discussion Thread.

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After reading the article, Psychoanalysis, discuss the goal, importance of dreams, the 3 major criticisms and your thoughts on the theory and techniques.

  Psychoanalysis: Freud’s Revolutionary Approach to Human Personality

Kristen M. BeystehnerNorthwestern University This paper focuses on Freud’s revolutionary theory of psychoanalysis and whether psychoanalysis should be considered a “great” idea in personality. The fundamental principles of the theory are developed and explained. In addition, the views of experts are reviewed, and many of the criticisms and strengths of various aspects of Freud’s theory are examined and explained. Upon consideration, the author considers psychoanalysis to be a valuable theory despite its weaknesses because it is comprehensive, serendipitous, innovative, and has withstood the test of time. Consequently, the author contends that psychoanalysis is indeed a “great” idea in personality. As a therapy, psychoanalysis is based on the concept that individuals are unaware of the many factors that cause their behavior and emotions. These unconscious factors have the potential to produce unhappiness, which in turn is expressed through a score of distinguishable symptoms, including disturbing personality traits, difficulty in relating to others, or disturbances in self-esteem or general disposition (American Psychoanalytic Association, 1998).Psychoanalytic treatment is highly individualized and seeks to show how the unconscious factors affect behavior patterns, relationships, and overall mental health. Treatment traces the unconscious factors to their origins, shows how they have evolved and developed over the course of many years, and subsequently helps individuals to overcome the challenges they face in life (National Psychological Association for Psychoanalysis, 1998).
In addition to being a therapy, psychoanalysis is a method of understanding mental functioning and the stages of growth and development. Psychoanalysis is a general theory of individual human behavior and experience, and it has both contributed to and been enriched by many other disciplines. Psychoanalysis seeks to explain the complex relationship between the body and the mind and furthers the understanding of the role of emotions in medical illness and health. In addition, psychoanalysis is the basis of many other approaches to therapy. Many insights revealed by psychoanalytic treatment have formed the basis for other treatment programs in child psychiatry, family therapy, and general psychiatric practice (Farrell, 1981, p. 202).
The value and validity of psychoanalysis as a theory and treatment have been questioned since its inception in the early 1900s. Critics dispute many aspects of psychoanalysis including whether or not it is indeed a science; the value of the data upon which Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, based his theories; and the method and effectiveness of psychoanalytic treatment. There has been much criticism as well as praise regarding psychoanalysis over the years, but a hard look at both the positive and negative feedback of critics of psychoanalysis shows, in my opinion, that psychoanalysis is indeed a “great idea” in personality that should not be overlooked.

The Origins of Psychoanalysis
Sigmund Freud was the first psychoanalyst and a true pioneer in the recognition of the importance of unconscious mental activity. His theories on the inner workings of the human mind, which seemed so revolutionary at the turn of the century, are now widely accepted by most schools of psychological thought. In 1896, Freud coined the term “psychoanalysis,” and for the next forty years of his life, he worked on thoroughly developing its main principles, objectives, techniques, and methodology.Freud’s many writings detail many of his thoughts on mental life, including the structural theory of the mind, dream interpretation, the technique of psychoanalysis, and assorted other topics. Eventually psychoanalysis began to thrive, and by 1925, it was established around the world as a flourishing movement. Although for many years Freud had been considered a radical by many in his profession, he was soon accepted and well-known worldwide as a leading expert in psychoanalysis (Gay, 1989, p. xii). In 1939, Freud succumbed to cancer after a lifetime dedicated to psychological thought and the development of his many theories (Gay, 1989, p. xx).
Although Freud’s life had ended, he left behind a legacy unmatched by any other, a legacy that continues very much to this day. Whereas new ideas have enriched the field of psychoanalysis and techniques have adapted and expanded over the years, psychoanalysts today, like Freud, believe that psychoanalysis is the most effective method of obtaining knowledge of the mind. Through psychoanalysis, patients free themselves from terrible mental anguish and achieve greater understanding of themselves and others.

Principles of Freud’s Theory of Psychoanalysis
In An Outline of Psychoanalysis, Freud (1949) explains the principal tenets on which psychoanalytic theory is based. He begins with an explanation of the three forces of the psychical apparatus–the id, the ego, and the superego. The id has the quality of being unconscious and contains everything that is inherited, everything that is present at birth, and the instincts (Freud, 1949, p. 14). The ego has the quality of being conscious and is responsible for controlling the demands of the id and of the instincts, becoming aware of stimuli, and serving as a link between the id and the external world. In addition, the ego responds to stimulation by either adaptation or flight, regulates activity, and strives to achieve pleasure and avoid unpleasure (Freud, 1949, p. 14-15). Finally, the superego, whose demands are managed by the id, is responsible for the limitation of satisfactions and represents the influence of others, such as parents, teachers, and role models, as well as the impact of racial, societal, and cultural traditions (Freud, 1949, p. 15).Freud states that the instincts are the ultimate cause of all behavior. The two basic instincts are Eros (love) and the destructive or death instinct. The purpose of Eros is to establish and preserve unity through relationships. On the other hand, the purpose of the death instinct is to undo connections and unity via destruction (Freud, 1949, p. 18). The two instincts can either operate against each other through repulsion or combine with each other through attraction (Freud, 1949, p. 19).
Freud (1949) contends that sexual life begins with manifestations that present themselves soon after birth (p. 23). The four main phases in sexual development are the oral phase, the sadistic-anal phase, the phallic phase, and the genital phase, and each phase is characterized by specific occurrences. During the oral phase, the individual places emphasis on providing satisfaction for the needs of the mouth, which emerges as the first erotogenic zone (Freud, 1949, p. 24). During the sadistic-anal phase, satisfaction is sought through aggression and in the excretory function. During the phallic phase, the young boy enters the Oedipus phase where he fears his father and castration while simultaneously fantasizing about sexual relations with his mother (Freud, 1949, p. 25). The young girl, in contrast, enters the Electra phase, where she experiences penis envy, which often culminates in her turning away from sexual life altogether. Following the phallic phase is a period of latency, in which sexual development comes to a halt (Freud, 1949, p. 23). Finally, in the genital phase, the sexual function is completely organized and the coordination of sexual urge towards pleasure is completed. Errors occurring in the development of the sexual function result in homosexuality and sexual perversions, according to Freud (1949, p. 27).
Freud (1949) defines the qualities of the psychical process as being either conscious, preconscious, or unconscious (p. 31). Ideas considered to be conscious are those of which we are aware, yet they remain conscious only briefly. Preconscious ideas are defined as those that are capable of becoming conscious. In contrast, unconscious ideas are defined as those that are not easily accessible but can be inferred, recognized, and explained through analysis (Freud, 1949, p. 32).
Freud spent many years hypothesizing about the role of dreams and their interpretation. He defines the states of sleep to be a period of uproar and chaos during which the unconscious thoughts of the id attempt to force their way into consciousness (Freud, 1949, p. 38). In order to interpret a dream, which develops from either the id or the ego, certain assumptions must be made, including the acknowledgment that what is recalled from a dream is only a facade behind which the meaning must be inferred. Dreams are undoubtedly caused by conflict and are characterized by their power to bring up memories that the dreamer has forgotten, their strong use of symbolism, and their ability to reproduce repressed impressions of the dreamer’s childhood (Freud, 1949, p. 40). In addition, dreams, which are fulfillments of wishes, according to Freud (1949), are capable of bringing up impressions that cannot have originated from the dreamer’s life (Freud, 1949, p. 45).
The basic objective of psychoanalysis is to remove neuroses and thereby cure patients by returning the damaged ego to its normal state (Freud, 1949, p. 51). During analysis, a process that often takes many years, patients tell analysts both what they feel is important and what they consider to be unimportant. An aspect of analysis that has both positive and negative repercussions is transference, which occurs when patients view their analysts as parents, role models, or other figures from their past. Transference causes patients to become concerned with pleasing their analysts and, as a result, patients lose their rational aim of getting well (Freud, 1949, p. 52).
The method of psychoanalysis involves several significant steps. First, analysts gather material with which to work from patients’ free associations, results of transference, dream interpretation, and the patients’ slips and parapraxes (Freud, 1949, p. 56). Second, analysts begin to form hypotheses about what happened to the patients in the past and what is currently happening to them in their daily life. It is important that analysts relay the conclusions at which they arrive based on their observations only after the patients have reached the same conclusions on their own accord. Should analysts reveal their conclusions to patients too soon, resistance due to repression occurs. Overcoming this resistance requires additional time and effort by both the analysts and the patients. Once patients accept the conclusions, they are cured (Freud, 1949, p. 57).
In the final chapters of An Outline of Psychoanalysis, Freud (1949) insists that it is neither practical nor fair to scientifically define what is normal and abnormal, and despite his theory’s accuracy, “reality will always remain unknowable” (p. 83). He claims that although his theory is correct to the best of his knowledge, “it is unlikely that such generalizations can be universally correct” (Freud, 1949, p. 96).

Evaluating the Criticisms of Psychoanalysis
In his “Précis of The Foundations of Psychoanalysis: A Philosophical Critique,” Grünbaum (1986) asserts that “while psychoanalysis may thus be said to be scientifically alive, it is currently hardly well” (p. 228). The criticisms of Freud’s theory can be grouped into three general categories. First, critics contend that Freud’s theory is lacking in empirical evidence and relies too heavily on therapeutic achievements, whereas others assert that even Freud’s clinical data are flawed, inaccurate, and selective at best. Second, the actual method or techniques involved in psychoanalysis, such as Freud’s ideas on the interpretation of dreams and the role of free association, have been criticized. Finally, some critics assert that psychoanalysis is simply not a science and many of the principles upon which it is based are inaccurate.
Criticisms of Freud’s Evidence
Grünbaum (1986) believes that the reasoning on which Freud based his entire psychoanalytic theory was “fundamentally flawed, even if the validity of his clinical evidence were not in question” but that “the clinical data are themselves suspect; more often than not, they may be the patient’s responses to the suggestions and expectations of the analyst” (p. 220). Grünbaum (1986) concludes that in order for psychoanalytic hypotheses to be validated in the future, data must be obtained from extraclinical studies rather than from data obtained in a clinical setting (p. 228). In other words, Grünbaum and other critics assert that psychoanalysis lacks in empirical data (Colby, 1960, p. 54).Other critics disagree with Grünbaum and insist that although extraclinical studies must and should be performed, clinical data are a reliable and necessary source of evidence because the theory of psychoanalysis would be impossible to test otherwise (Edelson, 1986, p. 232). Shevrin (1986) insists that “Freud’s admirable heuristic hypotheses did not come out of the thin air or simply out of his imagination” (p.258) as other critics might have the reader believe. Instead, Shevrin (1986) continues, “extraclinical methods must be drawn upon in addition to the clinical method because the clinical method is the only way we can be in touch with certain phenomena” (p. 259). Only with quantification, many critics assert, can supposedly scientific theories even begin to be evaluated based on their empirical merits.
Additional critics contend that Freud’s clinical data are flawed or invalid. Greenberg (1986) believes that Freud’s case studies do not place enough stress on revealing the outcome of the treatment and that Freud’s aim was more to illustrate his theoretical points (p. 240). In addition, Freud fully presented only twelve cases, but he mentioned over one hundred minor cases. Greenberg asserts that many of the presented cases would not even be considered acceptable examples of psychoanalysis and, in short, that virtually all of the case studies had basic shortcomings (p. 240). Finally, Greenberg finds it “both striking and curious” (p. 240) that Freud chose to illustrate the usefulness of psychoanalysis through the display of unsuccessful cases. “We were forced to conclude,” maintains Greenberg, “that Freud never presented any data, in statistical or case study form, that demonstrated that his treatment was of benefit to a significant number of the patients he himself saw” (p. 241). Many other powerful criticisms about Freud’s inaccurate and subsequently flawed evidence have been published. These critics contend that Freud’s evidence is flawed due to the lack of an experiment, the lack of a control group, and the lack of observations that went unrecorded (Colby, 1960, p. 54). In addition, critics find fault with the demographically restricted sample of individuals on which Freud based the majority of his data and theory (Holt, 1986, p. 242).

Criticisms of Freud’s Technique
“Free association” is a method employed in psychoanalysis where the patients speak about any subject matter whatsoever and the analyst draws conclusions based on what is said. According to Storr (1986), “Grünbaum forcefully argues that free association is neither free nor validating evidence for psychoanalytic theory” (p. 260). “For my own part, however,” Grünbaum (1986) concludes, “I find it unwarranted to use free association to validate causal inferences” (p. 224). Grünbaum (1986) contends that free association is not a valid method of accessing the patients’ repressed memories because there is no way of ensuring that the analyst is capable of distinguishing between the patients’ actual memories and imagined memories constructed due to the influence of the analyst’s leading questions (p. 226).Spence (1986) is critical of Grünbaum’s argument, although he acknowledges that
we simply do not know the amount of contamination, the spread of infection within the session, and the extent to which suggested responses are balanced by unexpected confirmations which support the theory and take the analyst by surprise. (p. 259)
Spence contends that free associations are not necessarily contaminated and also makes note of the fact that psychoanalysts “are particularly sensitized (in the course of their training) to the dangers of suggestion, and schooled in a tradition which places an emphasis on minimal comment and redundant examples” (p. 259). Spence concludes that the answer to the important question concerning the validity of free association will only be realized through close inspection of the transcripts of meetings between the patient and analyst.In addition to his criticism of free association, Grünbaum (1986) finds fault with Freud’s theory of dreams. In spite of Freud’s view that this theory represented his greatest insight and success, it has very much failed in the eyes of most of today’s critics.
Finally, many people feel that a major flaw of psychoanalysis is that, according to Farrell (1981), “it appears to encourage analytic and psychodynamic practitioners to overlook the place and great importance of ordinary common sense” (p. 216). Because psychoanalysis deals chiefly with unconscious motives and repressed emotions, common sense no longer seems to be applicable. Farrell (1981) and other critics believe that it is increasingly important for analysts to be aware of common sense and the role that it can, should, and does play in psychoanalysis (p. 216).

Criticisms of the Principles of Psychoanalysis
Storr (1981) insists, “Only a few fundamentalist psychoanalysts of an old-fashioned kind think that Freud was a scientist or that psychoanalysis was or could be a scientific enterprise,” and that, “…to understand persons cannot be a scientific enterprise” (p. 260). Although many psychoanalysts themselves would undoubtedly consider psychoanalysis to be a science, many critics would disagree.Popper, by far one of psychoanalysis’ most well-known critics and a strong critic of Grünbaum, insists that psychoanalysis cannot be considered a science because it is not falsifiable. He claims that psychoanalysis’ “so-called predictions are not predictions of overt behavior but of hidden psychological states. This is why they are so untestable” (Popper, 1986, p. 254). Popper (1986) claims that only when individuals are not neurotic is it possible to empirically determine if prospective patients are currently neurotic (p. 254). Popper (1986) asserts that psychoanalysis has often maintained that every individual is neurotic to some degree due to the fact that everyone has suffered and repressed a trauma at one point or another in his or her life (p. 255). However, this concept of ubiquitous repression is impossible to test because there is no overt behavioral method of doing so (p. 254).
Other critics claim that psychoanalysis cannot be considered a science due to its lack of predictions. Psychoanalysts, critics maintain, state that certain childhood experiences, such as abuse or molestation, produce certain outcomes or states of neurosis. To take this idea one step further, one should be able to predict that if children experience abuse, for instance, they will become characterized by certain personality traits. In addition, this concept would theoretically work in reverse. For instance, if individuals are observed in a particular neurotic state, one should be able to predict that they had this or that childhood experience. However, neither of these predictions can be made with any accuracy (Colby, 1960, p. 55).
Additional critics insist that psychoanalysis is not a science because of the lack of interpretive rules or regulations. Colby (1960) contends that critics of psychoanalysis have difficulties with the idea that “there are no clear, intersubjectively shared lines of reasoning between theories and observations” (p. 54). For instance, one psychoanalyst will observe one phenomenon and interpret it one way, whereas another psychoanalyst will observe the same phenomenon and interpret it in a completely different way that is contradictory to the first psychoanalyst’s interpretation (Colby, 1960, p. 54). Colby (1960) concludes that if analysts themselves cannot concur that a certain observation is an example of a certain theory, then the regulations that govern psychoanalytic interpretation are undependable (p. 55).
Eysenck (1986) maintains:
I have always taken it for granted that the obvious failure of Freudian therapy to significantly improve on spontaneous remission or placebo treatment is the clearest proof we have of the inadequacy of Freudian theory, closely followed by the success of alternative methods of treatment, such as behavior therapy. (p. 236)
Whereas critics, such as Popper (1986), insist that Freud’s theories cannot be falsified and therefore are not scientific, Eysenck claims that because Freud’s theories can be falsified, they are scientific. Grünbaum (1986) concurs with Eysenck that Freud’s theory is falsifiable and therefore scientific, but he goes one step further and claims that Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis has been proven wrong and is simply bad science.
Evaluating the Strengths of Psychoanalysis
In order to evaluate the strengths of Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis, one must consider a few of the qualities that make a theory of personality or behavior “great.” Among the many qualities that people consider to be important are that the theory addresses its problem, can be applied in practical ways, fits with other theories, and withstands the test of time. In addition, a good theory, according to many philosophers of science, is falsifiable, able to be generalized, leads to new theories and ideas, and is recognized by others in the field. Clearly psychoanalysis meets many of these criteria.As noted previously, Freud coined the term “psychoanalysis” in 1856. Even today, as we are rapidly approaching the twenty-first century, psychoanalysis remains as a valid option for patients suffering from mental illnesses. The acceptance and popularity of psychoanalysis is apparent through the existence of numerous institutes, organizations, and conferences established around the world with psychoanalysis as their focus. The theory of psychoanalysis was innovative and revolutionary, and clearly has withstood the test of time.
Perhaps even more noteworthy than the longevity of psychoanalysis is the fact that it has served as a catalyst to many professionals in the field of psychology and prompted them to see connections that they otherwise would have missed. Psychoanalysis enlightened health professionals about many aspects of the human mind and its inner workings, phenomena that had previously been inexplicable. As a direct result of psychoanalysis, approaches to psychological treatment now considered routine or commonplace were developed worldwide (Farrell, 1981, p. 202).
By far one of the greatest strengths of psychoanalysis is that it is a very comprehensive theory. Psychoanalysis, originally intended as a theory to explain therapeutic or psychological concepts, explains the nature of human development and all aspects of mental functioning. However, many experts contend that psychoanalysis can also be used to describe or explain a vast array of other concepts outside of the realm of the psychological field. For example, religion, Shakespeare’s character “Hamlet,” the nature of companies and their leaders, or an artist’s paintings can all be explained by the principles of psychoanalysis. This comprehensiveness suggests that the theory of psychoanalysis is, at least to some extent, pointing in the general direction of the truth (Farrell, 1981, p. 195).

Conclusion
I concur with the many critics who insist upon the invalidity of Freud’s evidence due to the lack of empirical data and the demographically restricted sample of individuals on which Freud based the majority of his ideas. Like Farrell (1981), I agree that sometimes it appears as if common sense does not have a place in psychoanalytic theory and, as a result, I believe irrelevant and false assumptions are made all too frequently. In addition, parts of Freudian theory are too generalized and fail to leave adequate room for exceptions to the general rule. Finally, I find it hard to accept that all mental problems stem from issues concerning aspects of sex, such as unresolved Oedipal and Electra complexes. I believe that this is a gross exaggeration and overgeneralization.Despite the weaknesses of psychoanalysis, I believe that the many strengths of the theory are extremely significant. Therefore, I maintain that psychoanalysis is a theory that should not be disregarded. Because psychoanalysis was developed a century ago and is still considered to be a credible and effective method of treating mental illnesses, I contend that at least significant parts of the theory are accurate. Second, I believe that psychoanalysis is a scientific theory due to the fact that it is falsifiable and has, in fact, been proven false because other methods of treatment have been proven effective. Third, I believe that psychoanalysis is comprehensive, can be applied in practical ways, and contains valid arguments. Finally, I believe that psychoanalysis is a substantial theory of personality because it is directly responsible for the development of additional psychological theories and hypotheses that otherwise may have been missed.
Psychoanalysis is widely disputed, but perhaps it is necessary to return to the founder of psychoanalysis himself. Freud (1949) wrote in his Outline of Psychoanalysis
the teachings of psychoanalysis are based on an incalculable number of observations and experiences, and only someone who has repeated those observations on himself and on others is in a position to arrive at a judgment of his own upon it. (p. 11)
Although I am hardly an expert on psychoanalysis, I believe that to dismiss the theory completely would be a tremendous oversight because without it many other valuable psychological techniques and theories most likely would have remained undiscovered. Peer Commentary
Analyzing PsychoanalysisSapna CheryanNorthwestern UniversityBeystehner’s article, “Psychoanalysis: Freud’s Revolutionary Approach to Human Personality,” examines Freud and his field of psychoanalysis in order to determine if the recognition it has received since its inception at the turn of the century has been deserved. In this article, Beystehner reviews various aspects of psychoanalysis, history of Freud, main ideas, and criticisms of psychoanalysis. The article concludes by acknowledging flaws in psychoanalysis, but asserts the value that Freud and his theories have added to the field of psychology.
Sigmund Freud was the psychologist responsible for forming and forwarding the first ideas in psychoanalysis. His theories were highly controversial and remain so to this day. The foundation of psychoanalysis is rooted in the idea that humans have unconscious longings that must be analyzed in order to understand behavior. Such unconscious desires are usually sexual and aggressive tendencies. Psychoanalysis is a method to uncover the source and elements of these impulses. Various methods, including free association, dream interpretation, and analysis of slips in conversation are used to identify latent longings.
Beystehner classifies critics into three categories. The first group is critical of Freud because of his method of data collection or his lack of data. A second group of critics dislikes techniques that psychoanalysts use to assist their patients. Free association, according to Grünbaum (1986), is “not a valid method of accessing the patients’ repressed actual memories because there is no way of ensuring that the analyst is capable of distinguishing between the patients’ actual memories and imagined memories constructed due to the influence of the analyst’s leading questions” (p. 226). Finally, Beystehner refers to critics who condemn psychoanalysis as not being scientific. Because it is impossible to test, lacks predictions, and has no “interpretive rules,” it contradicts many of the fundamental tenets of science.
Beystehner does an excellent job of reviewing the history of psychoanalysis and summarizing main ideas. Although she identifies some important critics, many others are left out. Freud has a significant number feminist critics because many of his theories viewed women’s sexuality in a negative light. In addition, Beystehner discusses Freud’s view that homosexuality is an “error occurring in the development of the sexual function.” Such an idea has been criticized with relatively recent emerging research on homosexuality. Therefore, critiques of Freud stretch farther than examined in this article. Nonetheless, Beystehner’s conclusion about psychoanalysis is valuable.
First, the aspects that make a theory “great” are underscored. Beystehner shows how Freud’s theories satisfy such aspects, thereby making it one of the greatest theories about human behavior. Flaws are acknowledged, yet “psychoanalysis is a theory that should not be disregarded.” It has helped develop and refine many new fields of psychology.
Peer Commentary
Great Ideas, But Great Science?Nathan JonesNorthwestern UniversityThe paper on psychoanalysis by Beystehner presents an argument that attempts to establish Freud’s revolutionary theory of psychotherapy as a “great” idea in the study of personality. Despite the great criticism of him by several scientists, the author believes Freud should not be overlooked. She believes that Freud’s theory, by withstanding the tests of time and by influencing so many other ideas in the field of personality, cannot be dismissed. In addition, she believes that psychoanalysis is a scientific method. The arguments are presented in a neat, linear manner that can be followed easily. First, the author gives origins and histories of psychotherapy, and then goes on to explain the theories of Freud. She finally documents important critical and positive viewpoints on the father of psychoanalysis.
The paper is strong in its clear presentation, with a final conclusion that is supported by the evidence brought forth in the author’s argument. However, many criticisms of Freud are left unresolved. The author does state in her conclusion that Freud’s arguments have their weaknesses, but she believes that an idea can still be great if it is flawed. The problem is that the strengths of his work are unclear and are directly refuted by Freud’s critics. Perhaps the greatest question left unresolved is the falsifiablity of Freud. Can we interpret his theories as a true science, or are they merely speculations at the human mind? The author believes that psychoanalysis is a scientific method because it is falsifiable, but no concrete proof of that is presented. The author shows that Freud is important because he influenced so much thought in the 20th century, and because he addressed issues previously kept in the dark. However, I believe the author falls short of establishing psychoanalysis as a science. The criticisms are overwhelming, and the author rarely takes the time to refute these points.
The criticisms collected regarding psychoanalysis are placed into three categories by the author, criticisms of Freud’s evidence, techniques, and principles. Freud and his theories are criticized on all levels. Attacks range from his intentions to his empirical evidence. At one point it is stated: “Greenburg believes that Freud’s case studies do not place enough stress on revealing the outcome of the treatment and that Freud’s aim was to illustrate his theoretical points.” And then almost immediately following: “Critics contend that Freud’s evidence is flawed due to the lack of an experiment, the lack of a control group, and the lack of observations that went unrecorded (Colby, 1960, p. 54).” Things that are synonymous with modern scientific theory and method are omitted from Freud’s theory. These multiple gaping holes in Freud’s work are presented in quick procession, and are followed by no discussion. Instead, the reader is left thinking only of all of Freud’s flaws. A mountain of these facts is built up, but it is never knocked down.
Instead of defending Freud against the points of the previous section, the portion of the paper evaluating the strengths of Freud concentrates on the influence Freud has had both inside and outside of psychology. The author states that “a good theory, according to many philosophers of science, is falsifiable, able to

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Biological Basis of Schizophrenia

There is a lot of research on our next topic: the biological basis of schizophrenia. There is still a lot more work to do but we have a lot of information to build on. Read the sections called, “Diagnosis”, “Genetics”, and “The Neurodevelopmental Hypothesis” in module 14.3 (15.2 in the 11th edition) of the textbook.

Source: Public Library of Science (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., 2005 – Comparison of a Selected Set of Relatively Well-Established Risk Factors for Schizophrenia, Focusing Mainly on Pre- and Antenatal Factors (abbreviations: CNS, central nervous system; depr, depression).

Post a thoughtful response to the following question. What could be done to try to reduce the rate of schizophrenia in the population using the information we have about what correlates with schizophrenia risk?  

OR 

Reply to a classmate’s response with in depth commentary about what might work or not work about their proposal or adding more detail to their proposal.

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Unit10PeerResponse

Unit10Peer Response

Response Guidelines

Your responses to other learners are expected to be substantive in nature and to reference the assigned readings, as well as other theoretical, empirical, or professional literature to support your views and writings. Use the following critique guidelines:

The clarity and completeness of your peer’s post.

The demonstrated ability to apply theory to practice.

The credibility of the references.

The structure and style of the written post.

Peer1

Raymond Lam 

Broderick & Blewitt (2015) define fluid intelligence as “basic operational characteristics that seem to directly reflect how well the hardware of the nervous system is working, affecting the efficiency of processes like reasoning.” Crystallized intelligence is defined as “the compilation of skills and information we have acquired in the course of our lives.” In simpler terms, fluid intelligence can be seen as the speed and efficiency of our intellectual processes. Crystallized intelligence is the accumulated knowledge of a person’s lifetime that includes things like languages, skills, and other things that a person has memorized.

As adults age, their level of fluid intelligence seems to decrease, which results in slower and less efficient processing ability. Older adults can also still learn, though it will be a slower and more difficult process due to the decline in working memory. However, older adults tend to be better at solving familiar, every-day problems and memory games than younger adults due to their large crystallized resources (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).

Professionals could use this information to support positive adjustment for aging adults by providing more relatable examples in training for a new role or being patient when the older adult is learning something new. Additionally, fluid intelligence should be assessed directly for older adults because it cannot be significantly predicted using subjective or objective measure (Shakeel & Goghari, 2017). Since fluid intelligence cannot be predicted, this encourages a case-by-case approach to the training or education of older adults. Interestingly, Cooper et al. (2009) found that moderate alcohol consumption was associated with better cognition in regions of France. However, that study’s results would need further research to eliminate any confounds and expand applicability. If the effect still stands, moderate alcohol intake could be advised to older adults to benefit their cognition.

 Broderick, P.C., & Blewitt, P. (2015). THE LIFE SPAN: Human Development for Helping Professionals (4th ed.). Boston: Pearson. 

Cooper, C., Bebbington, P., Meltzer, H., Jenkins, R., Brugha, T., Lindesay, J. E. B., & Livingston, G. (2009). Alcohol in moderation, premorbid intelligence and cognition in older adults: Results from the psychiatric morbidity survey. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 80(11), 1236. http://dx.doi.org.library.capella.edu/10.1136/jnnp.2008.163964

Shakeel, M. K., & Goghari, V. M. (2017). Measuring fluid intelligence in healthy older adults. Journal of Aging Research, http://dx.doi.org.library.capella.edu/10.1155/2017/8514582

Peer2 

Jenisha Mixson 

          Individuals experience gradual losses in cognitive functioning in late adulthood. Cognition and healthy brain function depends on the preservation of white matter and synaptic connections (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). During this stage, pragmatic (crystallized) intelligence, such as verbal ability and factual knowledge can increase until age ninety for healthy individuals (Ziegler, Cengia, Mussel, & Gerstorf, 2015). However, mechanic (fluid) intelligence is normally categorized by a gradual decline in processing speed and inhibitory functions. Fluid intelligence is considered the processing efficiency of the cognitive system, while crystallized intelligence is viewed as the product of that process (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). These intellectual resources, in relation to the gradual declines and increases within late-adulthood, tend to balance one another. In other words, the visible decline in learning and problem solving during this stage can be balanced by crystallized intelligence (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). The understanding of emotional intelligence and health behaviors in late-adulthood are vital to an individual’s positive transition.

            During late-adulthood, individuals are adjusting to the decline in cognitive functioning that they experience. In order to positively support this transition, professionals must understand the importance of emotional intelligence in relation to cognitive functioning. Typically, a person with a high degree of openness is imaginative and easily able to deal with conflict and various situations. The “differential preservation hypothesis” describes openness as the key element in decelerating cognitive decline before the age of seventy (Ziegler, Cengia, Mussel, & Gerstorf, 2015). However, after seventy years of age, individuals who are more open or able to express themselves and invest their time effectively, show a relatively stable decrease in functioning (Gerstorf et al., 2015). Professionals can utilize these findings to increase the level of life-satisfaction that individuals in late-adulthood. They can create a foundation of positivity for their clients by suggesting that they are open to the transitions that will occur.

            Healthy behaviors are vital to life-satisfaction and positive transitioning in late-adulthood. In order to foster positive adjustments for aging adults, professionals must understand the necessity of pro-health activities. These activities include healthy habits such as diet, exercise, and other preventative behaviors (Sygit-Kowalkowska, Sygit, & Sygit, 2015). These actions are directly associated with the ability to understand and control the emotions of older people (Sygit-Kowalkowska et al., 2015). Professionals may consider the importance of pro-health activities and incorporate them into their client’s daily routine. This process could support the transition that aging adult’s experience.      

           

 

 

Broderick, P.C., & Blewitt, P. (2015). THE LIFE SPAN: Human Development for             Helping Professionals (4th ed.). Boston: Pearson. 

Sygit-Kowalkowska, E., Sygit, K., & Sygit, M. (2015). Emotional intelligence vs. health behaviour in selected groups in late adulthood. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 22(2), 338-343. doi:10.5604/12321966.1152092Ziegler,

 M., Cengia, A., Mussel, P., & Gerstorf, D. (2015). Openness as a buffer against cognitive decline: The Openness-Fluid-Crystallized-Intelligence (OFCI) model applied to late adulthood. Psychology And Aging, 30(3), 573-588. doi:10.1037/a0039493

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Psychology week 4 Dispositional Personality

 Dispositional  theory.

Create a 10- to 12-slide Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation, with detailed speaker notes, on the strengths and limitations of the assigned theory in explaining individuals’ behavior. Address the following: Describe how the theory affects an individual’s personality. Explain how the theory influences interpersonal relationships.

Format your presentation consistent with APA guidelines.

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cyber

Conduct some research of your own to find and select one act of cyber terrorism or cyberwarfare. In one to two pages, summarize the case. Who was the target of the act? Do we know who committed the act? Were they captured? If yes, how were they captured? Is there any indication of why the act was committed?

      This week we will focus on the issues of Cyber Warfare and Cyber Terrorism and how they are a growing threat in today’s world. Let’s start off by defining these terms. Cyber Warfare is using computers over the Internet to conduct acts of warfare against other websites or groups on the Internet. This could include defacing websites, distributing denial of service attacks, distributing propaganda, or gathering classified data over the Internet.
 

   

Cyber Terrorism is different from Cyber Warfare. Cyber Warfare can be inconvenient from having to clean up a website from vandalism or suffering from downtime because of a denial of service attack. With Cyber Terrorism, violence can result from an attack. So, as technology advances, there are more and more ways that this new technology can be taken advantage of. 

China, Russia, Iran, al Qaeda, domestic right-wing hate groups, and numerous other terrorist or nation-state entities all have access to the Internet and have the tools to perpetrate a variety of cyber-attacks against the United States and/or its allies. By the very nature of these technological attacks, our critical infrastructure is most vulnerable. 

There is a great deal of confusion as to what the threats against U.S. information systems really are. There is a tremendous range of domestic and international terror groups, unfriendly nations, and criminals attempting to or successfully subverting U.S. critical and economic infrastructure. 

 
INFORMATION WARFARE is the gathering or use of information to gain an advantage over another party. It is not limited to those things that can be done with computers.
Information warfare consists of six components:
 

Psychological operations
electronic warfare
military deception
physical destruction
security measures
information attacks
 

CYBERTERRORISM cannot be concretely defined and has spurred significantly debate over exactly what it means. It is not defined by the group perpetrating it. It is specifically a premeditated, politically, or ideologically motivated attack or threat of attack against information, computer systems, computer programs, and data that can result in violence against civilian targets.

 

Cyber Warfare and Cyber Terrorism have both similarities and differences. They are similar in that both involve using computer systems against other computer systems, although with Cyber Terrorism the physical system can also be targeted. They are both different because in Cyber Terrorism, violence can occur, such as people be can be hurt or killed. 

REASONS FOR ATTACK 

There are many reasons why these attacks occur. Probably one of the main reasons is to state a goal or objective that disagrees with a view of another community. For example, an anti- abortion group defacing an abortion clinic’s website, or performing a denial of service against a website so that people cannot access it and receive information from it. These would be acts of Cyber Warfare. Mostly with Cyber Warfare though, some of the defacement and denial of service attacks will come from people who just do that sort of thing for fun because they think they can. 

With Cyber Terrorism, these attacks occur because of numerous reasons. The word terrorism itself has the word terror in it, which means to strike fear and dread into an individual. There have been many Terrorism attacks throughout history, including the one on September 11, 2001. With Cyber Terrorism, it uses that fear and dread by utilizing it over the Internet to attack computer systems that control numerous things, hacking government websites and stealing top secret information that could be used against that government by the terrorists. Similar to Cyber Warfare, most terrorist goals, besides striking fear into other groups and nations, is to convey a political message to the government or nation that they oppose. 

US NATIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE 

The US national infrastructure is critical to day-to-day activities. Without it, airplanes could not fly, banks could not conduct financial transactions, emergency services would cease to function, and the government would lose its control. Therefore, without the national infrastructure, our national security would be in imminent danger. 

The Internet is a critical tool for political and social movements of all types around the world. Few Americans have considered a situation involving an attack on our infrastructure. Today, attacks against U.S businesses and governments are commonplace, with an estimated 100 million attempts each day. 

The United States has identified itself as the most infrastructure reliant nation on Earth. The following is a list of critical infrastructures each with a brief description that the United States deems to be of extreme importance. 

      TELECOMMUNICATIONS: To include Internet, cable, cellular, telephone, satellite, and any other medium that connects systems together.
    ELECTRIC POWER
    OIL AND GAS TRANSPORTATION: From the Alaska pipeline to oil refineries to natural
gas distribution.
    TRANSPORTATION: Ground deliveries, air traffic control, and trains. All of which play a
huge role in delivering food and materials, driving businesses and tourism.
    BANKING AND FINANCE: The movement of trillions of dollars of virtual money through
brokerages and banks over computer wires and networks.
    WATER SUPPLY: Managing the water supply and waste disposal is done by electronic
means.
    EMERGENCY SERVICES: 911, fire and police departments, rescue units all rely upon the
communications networks to do their job with speed and efficiency.
INFORMATION ATTACKS
Information attacks are less destructive forms of cyber-attack that terrorist groups or adversarial nations could employ that achieve information warfare objectives. Examples of these types of attacks include: 1) web-site defacement, 2) cyberplagues including viruses and worms, 3) distributed denial of service attacks, and 4) unauthorized intrusions.

   

Assignment 

What turns people into terrorists? That question might sound simple, but it’s at the heart of the struggle to prevent terrorist attacks. Take a look at some of the people who have tried to do us harm in the last few years.    Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, son of a wealthy banker, grew up in Nairobi, attended boarding school and college, and lived in an expensive London neighborhood. Chat room posts show that he worried about his school test scores and about girls — and felt lonely. He traveled to Yemen between high school and college to study Arabic. His classmates at University College London described him as quiet, easy to overlook. He tried to detonate explosives hidden in his underwear while onboard Northwest Airlines Flight 253, Christmas Day, 2009.
    Najibullah Zazi, born in Afghanistan in 1985, lived in Pakistan before moving to New York with his family when he was 14. Zazi attended a local mosque and dropped out of Flushing High School, and worked at the family’s coffee-and-doughnut cart near Wall Street. In his early 20s, he traveled to Pakistan for an arranged marriage, fathered two children and traveled back to New York to work but wound up deeply in debt. Zazi tried to join the Taliban in 2008; Al Qaeda recruited him instead. In 2009, he headed to New York from Colorado with the makings of a bomb intended for the New York subway.
    Tamerlan Tsarnaev was an angry young man who, according to the Boston Globe, told his mother he heard voices in his head. He never managed to achieve his own idea of the American dream, and instead turned to a radical form of Islam adopted by fighters in Dagestan, his homeland. In 2013, Tsarnaev and his brother were accused of bombing the Boston Marathon.
 These examples show that moving from radical beliefs (which are protected under the Constitution) to willingness to engage in violence is a highly individualized process. There is no one way to get there, no specific belief that causes someone to turn. It’s also difficult to separate psychological issues from political motives.

Conduct some research of your own to find and select one act of cyber terrorism or cyberwarfare. In one to two pages, summarize the case. Who was the target of the act? Do we know who committed the act? Were they captured? If yes, how were they captured? Is there any indication of why the act was committed?
 

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Philosophy In Chain

8 pages 

5 sources 

APA 

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Discussion Question on Love – Due TODAY

Construct a definition of love which is supported by modern theories on love. What are the positive and negative aspects associated with loving relationships? 

This is due TODAY!

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I need someone to answer these questions about the article.

What reasons do the authors give for conducting this research study? The Introduction ends with a hypothesis, or a prediction, about what the authors will find in the study.   Using your own words, what is the hypothesis? Describe the participants in the study – what were the participants’ demographic characteristics?    What variables are being studied? What procedure did the authors use in this study to collect data? What kind of data was presented in the results section?  Were there averages (means), correlations, or statistical tests? What did the author find – what was concluded from the data analyses?  Was the hypothesis supported? What are some of the limitations to the study that the authors noted? What are some of the authors’ suggestions for future research studies that can follow up this study? Why is this research important? What terms are difficult to understand? What questions do you have about this article? What do you think about this research – would you apply the results to yourself?

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